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Details for anatomical structure: adrenal gland

EndoNet ID: ENC00009

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Synonyms

adrenal gland, suprarenal gland (right and left), Glandula adrenalis (dexter et sinister)

General information

A flattened, roughly triangular body resting upon the upper end of each kidney; it is one of the ductless glands furnishing internal secretions, epinephrine and norepinephrine from the medulla and steroid hormones from the cortex

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0038316

Larger structures

    Substructures

      Secreted hormones

      • Hormone: urocortin-3

        • Three main types of hormones are produced by the adrenal cortex: glucocorticoids (cortisol, corticosterone), mineralocorticoids (aldosterone, deoxycorticosterone [DOC]), and sex steroids (mainly androgens). [1]
        • High concentrations of immunoreactive (IR)-Ucn3 were present in the normal portions of adrenal glands. [2]
      • Hormone: deoxycorticosterone

      • Hormone: epinephrine

      • Hormone: MIP-1 delta

      • Hormone: AGRP

      • Hormone: resistin

      • Hormone: slit-2 isoform 1 C-product

      • Hormone: FAM3A

      • Hormone: TGF-beta 2

        • TGF-β isoform 2 is synthesized by cells in the wall of the dorsal aorta as well as at later stages in both cortical and migrating chromaffin cells within the developing adrenal gland. [3]
      • Hormone: TGF-beta 3

        • TGF-β isoforms 3 is synthesized by cells in the wall of the dorsal aorta as well as at later stages in both cortical and migrating chromaffin cells within the developing adrenal gland. [3]
      • Hormone: pregnenolone

      Receptors

      • Receptor: dopamine receptor D2

      • Receptor: galanin receptor 3

      • Receptor: ER-alpha

        Induced phenotype:

        • adrenal gland function
          • Estrogen receptor (ERs) were found in the adrenal gland of rats. Further, ERs were found to be localised within cell nucleo of adrenal cortex of rhesus monkey and sheep. ER alpha was detected in the adrenal zona glomerulosa, fasciculata and reticularis in the mare adrenal gland. These results suggest estradiol may affect basal adrenal function. [4]
      • Receptor: angiotensin II type 1 receptor

      • Receptor: angiotensin receptor 2

      • Receptor: CysLTR2

      • Receptor: NMU-R2

      • Receptor: LXR-alpha

      • Receptor: LXR-beta

      • Receptor: CB1

        Influences:

        • CGRP1
          • Stimulation of the CB1 receptor results in the inhibition of a range of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters, like acetylcholine, noradrenaline, dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, D-aspartate and cholecystokinin. [5]
        • acetylcholine
          • Stimulation of the CB1 receptor results in the inhibition of a range of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters, like acetylcholine, noradrenaline, dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, D-aspartate and cholecystokinin. [5]
        • cholecystokinin
          • Activation of presynaptic CB1 receptor leads to the inhibition of neurotransmitter release, e.g. cholecystokinin [5]
      • Receptor: CRF-R1

        Induced phenotype:

        • negative regulation of immune response
          • Hypothalamic secretion of CRH leads to suppression of immune response indirectly via stimulation of glucocorticoid secretion from adrenal glands. [6]
      • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 2

        Influences:

        • aldosterone
          • S1P is a novel regulator of aldosterone secretion, which is crucial for hemodynamic stability. The stimulation of aldosterone secretion by S1P involves the PLD/PAP pathway and that Gi proteins, extracellular Ca2+, and the PKC isoforms alpha and delta are all important components of the signaling pathways controlling this process. [7]
      • Receptor: alpha 1 adrenoceptor

        Induced phenotype:

        • Pheochromocytoma
      • Receptor: steroidogenic factor 1

        Induced phenotype:

        • positive regulation of adrenal development
      Reference