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Details for anatomical structure: adrenal medulla

EndoNet ID: ENC00011

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Synonyms

adrenal medulla, medulla of suprarenal gland, suprarenal medulla, medulla of adrenal gland, Medulla glandulae suprarenalis

General information

The internal part of the suprarenal gland which contains masses of chromaffin cells filled with venous sinusoids; it is composed principally of anastomosing cords of cells in the core of the gland; the cells display a chromaffine reaction because of the presence of epinephrine and norepinephrine in their granules

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0000530

Larger structures

    Substructures

      Secreted hormones

      • Hormone: norepinephrine

        Influenced by:

        • PACAP-R-1
          in adrenal_medulla
          • VIP and PACAP stimulate the synthesis and release of adrenomedullary catecholamines, and all three subtypes of PACAP/VIP receptors mediate this effect, PACAP-R-1 being coupled to AC. [1]
        • VPAC1
          in adrenal_medulla
          • VIP and PACAP stimulate the synthesis and release of adrenomedullary catecholamines, and all three subtypes of PACAP/VIP receptors mediate this effect, VPAC1 being coupled to both AC and PLC. [1]
        • VPAC2
          in adrenal_medulla
          • VIP and PACAP stimulate the synthesis and release of adrenomedullary catecholamines, and all three subtypes of PACAP/VIP receptors mediate this effect, VPAC2 being coupled to PLC. [1]
      • Hormone: acetylcholine

        Influenced by:

        • CB1
          in adrenal_gland
          • Stimulation of the CB1 receptor results in the inhibition of a range of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters, like acetylcholine, noradrenaline, dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, D-aspartate and cholecystokinin. [2]
      • Hormone: ADM

      • Hormone: dopamine

        Influenced by:

        • PACAP-R-1
          in adrenal_medulla
          • VIP and PACAP stimulate the synthesis and release of adrenomedullary catecholamines, and all three subtypes of PACAP/VIP receptors mediate this effect, PACAP-R-1 being coupled to AC. [1]
        • VPAC1
          in adrenal_medulla
          • VIP and PACAP stimulate the synthesis and release of adrenomedullary catecholamines, and all three subtypes of PACAP/VIP receptors mediate this effect, VPAC1 being coupled to both AC and PLC. [1]
        • VPAC2
          in adrenal_medulla
          • VIP and PACAP stimulate the synthesis and release of adrenomedullary catecholamines, and all three subtypes of PACAP/VIP receptors mediate this effect, VPAC2 being coupled to PLC. [1]
      • Hormone: epinephrine

        Influenced by:

        • PACAP-R-1
          in adrenal_medulla
          • VIP and PACAP stimulate the synthesis and release of adrenomedullary catecholamines, and all three subtypes of PACAP/VIP receptors mediate this effect, PAC(1)-Rs being coupled to AC. [1]
        • VPAC1
          in adrenal_medulla
          • VIP and PACAP stimulate the synthesis and release of adrenomedullary catecholamines, and all three subtypes of PACAP/VIP receptors mediate this effect, VPAC1 being coupled to both AC and PLC. [1]
        • VPAC2
          in adrenal_medulla
          • VIP and PACAP stimulate the synthesis and release of adrenomedullary catecholamines, and all three subtypes of PACAP/VIP receptors mediate this effect,VPAC2 being coupled to PLC. [1]

      Receptors

      • Receptor: dopamine receptor D2

      • Receptor: dopamine receptor D1

      • Receptor: dopamine receptor D4

      • Receptor: dopamine receptor D5

      • Receptor: frizzled 10

      • Receptor: M1

        Influences:

        • acetylcholine
          • Muscarinic receptor stimulation was also found to enhance nicotineinduced catecholamine secretion by 1.7-fold if muscarine wasa dded 30 s before nicotine addition. [3]
      • Receptor: M3

        Influences:

        • acetylcholine
          • Muscarinic receptor stimulation was also found to enhance nicotineinduced catecholamine secretion by 1.7-fold if muscarine wasa dded 30 s before nicotine addition. [3]
      • Receptor: M4

        Influences:

        • acetylcholine
          • Muscarinic receptor stimulation was also found to enhance nicotineinduced catecholamine secretion by 1.7-fold if muscarine wasa dded 30 s before nicotine addition. [3]
      • Receptor: M2

        Influences:

        • acetylcholine
          • Muscarinic receptor stimulation was also found to enhance nicotineinduced catecholamine secretion by 1.7-fold if muscarine wasa dded 30 s before nicotine addition. [3]
      • Receptor: M5

        Influences:

        • acetylcholine
          • Muscarinic receptor stimulation was also found to enhance nicotineinduced catecholamine secretion by 1.7-fold if muscarine wasa dded 30 s before nicotine addition. [3]
      • Receptor: alpha7nAChR

      • Receptor: Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-2

      • Receptor: Acetylcholine receptor subunit delta

      • Receptor: Acetylcholine receptor subunit gamma

      • Receptor: Acetylcholine receptor subunit beta

      • Receptor: CHRNA1-2

      • Receptor: BMP receptor type II

        Induced phenotype:

        • regulation of cell fate specification
          • In addition to the developmental context, BMPs secreted locally by the adrenal cortex are good candidates that could also modify the cellular fate of tissue progenitor cells in the adult adrenal medulla. [4]
        • negative regulation of catecholamine biosynthetic process
          • BMPs have the potential to influence aldosterone-dependent dopamine production. [5]
          • BMPs are thought to influence catecholamine production of adrenomedullary cells via an indirect mechanism through interfering with steroid hormone-dependent signalling pathways. [6]
          • BMPs can inhibit dopamine expression and reduced DOPA decarboxylase mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner, thereby acting antagonistic to glucocorticoids. [6]
      • Receptor: BMP receptor type IB

        Induced phenotype:

        • positive regulation of adrenal development
          • The introduction of a constitutively active type I BMP receptor in neural crest cells is sufficient to induce the development of adrenergic cells. [7]
          • Reduction of BMP-4-induced signalling is assiciated with smaller adrenal size in sheep. [8]
          • BMP is important for regulation of adrenal development, specially of adrenomedullary cell specification from neural crest. [4]
      • Receptor: VPAC2

        Influences:

        • ACTH
          • There is proof that VIP and PACAP can also enhance aldosterone secretion indirectly, by eliciting the release from medullary chromaffin cells of catecholamines and adrenocorticotropic hormone, which in turn may act on the cortical cells in a paracrine manner. [1]
        • dopamine
          • VIP and PACAP stimulate the synthesis and release of adrenomedullary catecholamines, and all three subtypes of PACAP/VIP receptors mediate this effect, VPAC2 being coupled to PLC. [1]
        • norepinephrine
          • VIP and PACAP stimulate the synthesis and release of adrenomedullary catecholamines, and all three subtypes of PACAP/VIP receptors mediate this effect, VPAC2 being coupled to PLC. [1]
        • epinephrine
          • VIP and PACAP stimulate the synthesis and release of adrenomedullary catecholamines, and all three subtypes of PACAP/VIP receptors mediate this effect,VPAC2 being coupled to PLC. [1]
      • Receptor: VPAC1

        Influences:

        • ACTH
          • There is proof that VIP and PACAP can also enhance aldosterone secretion indirectly, by eliciting the release from medullary chromaffin cells of catecholamines and adrenocorticotropic hormone, which in turn may act on the cortical cells in a paracrine manner. [1]
        • dopamine
          • VIP and PACAP stimulate the synthesis and release of adrenomedullary catecholamines, and all three subtypes of PACAP/VIP receptors mediate this effect, VPAC1 being coupled to both AC and PLC. [1]
        • norepinephrine
          • VIP and PACAP stimulate the synthesis and release of adrenomedullary catecholamines, and all three subtypes of PACAP/VIP receptors mediate this effect, VPAC1 being coupled to both AC and PLC. [1]
        • epinephrine
          • VIP and PACAP stimulate the synthesis and release of adrenomedullary catecholamines, and all three subtypes of PACAP/VIP receptors mediate this effect, VPAC1 being coupled to both AC and PLC. [1]
      • Receptor: PACAP-R-1

        • PACAP-R-1 expression exclusively occurs in the adrenal medulla. [9]

        Influences:

        • dopamine
          • VIP and PACAP stimulate the synthesis and release of adrenomedullary catecholamines, and all three subtypes of PACAP/VIP receptors mediate this effect, PACAP-R-1 being coupled to AC. [1]
        • norepinephrine
          • VIP and PACAP stimulate the synthesis and release of adrenomedullary catecholamines, and all three subtypes of PACAP/VIP receptors mediate this effect, PACAP-R-1 being coupled to AC. [1]
        • epinephrine
          • VIP and PACAP stimulate the synthesis and release of adrenomedullary catecholamines, and all three subtypes of PACAP/VIP receptors mediate this effect, PAC(1)-Rs being coupled to AC. [1]
      Reference