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Details for anatomical structure: platelet

EndoNet ID: ENC00013

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Synonyms

platelet, thrombocyte, blood platelet, blood disk, thromboplastid, Thrombocytus

General information

nucleusless; important for blood coagulation; contain different forms of granules

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0011373

Larger structures

    Substructures

      Secreted hormones

      • Hormone: histamine

      • Hormone: PF-4

        • Released during platelet aggregation. [1]
      • Hormone: osteonectin

        • Human platelets contain and secrete osteonectin, a major protein of mineralized bone. [2]
      • Hormone: osteocalcin

      • Hormone: thrombospondin 1

      • Hormone: CD40-L

      • Hormone: galectin-1

      • Hormone: NAP-2

      • Hormone: PAF

      • Hormone: soluble P-selectin

      • Hormone: TXA2

      • Hormone: lysophosphatidic acid

        • LPA is produced in activated platelets. [3]
      • Hormone: sphingosine 1-phosphate

        • Platelets can secrete S1P when activated by thrombin or IgE-bound antigen, respectively. [4]

      Receptors

      • Receptor: IgE Fc receptor gamma-subunit

      • Receptor: transferrin receptor 2

        Induced phenotype:

        • regulation of iron ion transmembrane transport
          • TfR2 binds diferric transferrin (Tf) and can mediate the uptake of Tf-bound iron into cells. TfR2 serves as a receptor for Tf-bound iron in human platelets. [5]
          • Hemochromatosis protein can influence cellular iron levels. The body iron status can alter platelet count, size and activation. [6]
          • Platelets contain hemochromatosis protein, and also TfR2 was detectable in platelets. [7]
      • Receptor: thrombospondin receptor

        Induced phenotype:

        • regulation of cell adhesion
          • CD36, identified as a platelet integral membrane glycoprotein, is known as a receptor for thrombospondin-1, which is found in platelets alpha granules and participates in cell attachment. [8]
      • Receptor: CD40

      • Receptor: PAF-R

      • Receptor: CCR4

      • Receptor: PGI receptor

      • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1

        Induced phenotype:

        • atherosclerosis
          • The effect of LPA on platelets may be species-specific, because LPA was found to inhibit platelet activation in mice. [9]
          • LPA has been implicated in the development of atherosclerosis during early (barrier dysfunction and monocyte adhesion of the endothelium) and later phases (platelet activation and thrombosis). [10]
          • LPA was found to accumulate in the thrombogenic lipid-rich core of atherosclerotic plaques. Pharmacological studies identified LPA1 as primary mediator of LPA-induced platelet activation. [11]
      • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 3

        Induced phenotype:

        • atherosclerosis
          • LPA has been implicated in the development of atherosclerosis during early (barrier dysfunction and monocyte adhesion of the endothelium) and later phases (platelet activation and thrombosis). [10]
          • LPA was found to accumulate in the thrombogenic lipid-rich core of atherosclerotic plaques. Pharmacological studies identified LPA3 as primary mediator of LPA-induced platelet activation. [11]
          • The effect of LPA on platelets may be species-specific, because LPA was found to inhibit platelet activation in mice. [9]
      • Receptor: Psychosine receptor

        Induced phenotype:

        • negative regulation of protein kinase activity
          • Lysosphingolipids potently and reversibly inhibited protein kinase C activity and binding of phorbol dibutyrate in vitro and in human platelets. [12]
      • Receptor: 5-HT-2A

        Induced phenotype:

        • platelet aggregation
          • The 5-HT 2A receptors occur peripherally on platelets and their function is platelet aggregation. [13]
          • Inhibiton of platelet aggregation by 5-HT 2 receptor blocking. [14]
        • regulation of serum calcium levels
          • Agonist binding to 5-HT 2A receptor activates the IP3 second messenger system and leads to the mobilization of cytosolic calcium. [15]
      Reference