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Details for anatomical structure: breast

EndoNet ID: ENC00022

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Synonyms

breast, mamma, Mamma

General information

The organ of milk secretion; one of two hemispheric projections of variable size situated in the subcutaneous layer over the pectoralis muscle on either side of the chest of the mature female, it is rudimentary in the male

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0051885

Larger structures

    Substructures

      Secreted hormones

      • Hormone: alpha-AGP

        • AGP, a highly glycosylated polypeptide chain, is expressed in human liver and in other cells, including human breast epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and cultured human granulocytes and monocytes. [1]
      • Hormone: SFRP1

      • Hormone: MSMB

      • Hormone: STC-2

        • STC2 expression represents a downstream target of E2, P4 and RA signalling pathways in human breast cancer cell lines. [2]

      Receptors

      • Receptor: PPARgamma1

        • The peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor gamma (PPAR╬│) is expressed in many cell types including mammary epithelium, ovary, macrophages, and B- and T-cells [3]
      • Receptor: ER-alpha

        Influences:

        • adiponectin
          • Bisphenol A and estrogen suppress adiponectin release from human breast, subcutaneous, and visceral adipose tissue explants and mature adipocytes. [4]
          • Bisphenol A binds both estrogen receptors alpha and beta. [5]
      • Receptor: ER-beta

        Influences:

        • adiponectin
          • Bisphenol A and estrogen suppress adiponectin release from human breast, subcutaneous, and visceral adipose tissue explants and mature adipocytes. [4]
          • Bisphenol A binds both estrogen receptors alpha and beta. [5]
      • Receptor: glypican 1

      • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1

        Induced phenotype:

        • breast cancer
          • In addition to the involvement of LPA2, there is evidence for contributions of LPA1 to the tumorigenic activity of LPA. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of LPA1 has been shown to reduce the proliferation and metastasis of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. [6]
      • Receptor: PRLR

        Induced phenotype:

        • galactorrhea
          • In humans, hyperprolactinemia has been shown to be associated with galactorrhea. [7]
        • breast cancer
          • Prolactin is thought to induce the proliferation of several lines of human breast cancer. [8]
          • Not only 17 beta-estradiol but also prolactin is of major importance leading to enhanced proliferation of MXT mammary neoplastic cells. [9]
          • The human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 is highly responsive to growth stimulation by homologous lactogenic hormones. This then affords a possible role of prolactin in growth and maintenance of human breast cancer. [10]
          • The peptide hormone prolactin regulates proliferation of normal and malignant mammary cells. [11]
      Reference