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Details for anatomical structure: granulosa cell

EndoNet ID: ENC00044

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Synonyms

granulosa cell, follicular epithelial cell, follicular cell,

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0044754

Larger structures

    Substructures

      Secreted hormones

      • Hormone: inhibin B

        • Inhibin B is a product of the granulosa cells of growing preantral and antral follicles. [1]
      • Hormone: estradiol

        • Aromatase converts androstenidione from the theca cells of the ovary to estradiol. [2]
        • In response to the P450arom induced in the granulosa cells by FSH stimulation, the androstenedione is aromatized to estrone, which then is converted to estradiol by the 17beta-HSD. [3]

        Influenced by:

        • follitropin receptor
          in granulosa_cell
        • BMP receptor type IB
          in granulosa_cell
          • BMP-4 and BMP-7 enhance FSH-dependent estradiol production, suggesting that BMP factors regulate granulosa cell differentiation, particularty in delaying the luteinization process. [4]
      • Hormone: inhibin A

      • Hormone: VEGF-165

      • Hormone: angiotensin II

      • Hormone: progesterone

        Influenced by:

        • LHCGR-1
          in granulosa_cell
          • Progesterone secretion was enhanced by all agents that caused down-regulationo f the LH receptor; however, there was little correlation between progesterone secretion and down-regulation [5]
        • BMP receptor type IB
          in granulosa_cell
          • BMP-4, a known ligand of Alk6, inhibits progesterone secretion by ovine granulosa cells in the absence of FSH. [6]
          • BMP-4 modulates progesterone by inhibiting the steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) transcriptional activity on steroidogenic gene promotors. In FSH-induced conditions, this mechanism might be reinforced by an inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity. [7]
        • PRLR
          in ovary
          • The luteotropic action of prolactin involves stimulation of progesterone production by luteal cells. [8]
      • Hormone: estrogen

        Influenced by:

        • LHCGR-1
          in granulosa_cell
          • In females, luteinizing hormone receptor activation is required for estrogen synthesis , and LH surge from the pituitary triggers ovulation and luteinization of granulosa cell to form corpus luteum. [9]
        • PRLR
          in granulosa_cell
          • In granulose cells. prolactin inhibits estrogen synthesis. [10]

      Receptors

      • Receptor: follitropin receptor

        Induced phenotype:

        • granulosa cell differentiation
          • Follicle-stimuating hormone has a central role in ovarian folliculogenesis, particularly in regulating granulosa cell differentiation, it enhances expression of steroidogenic enzymes such as cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage and P450 aromatase (these actions are importantly modulated by various growth factors, acting in paracrine or autocrine way). [11]
        • ovarian follicle development
          • Follicle-stimuating hormone has a central role in ovarian folliculogenesis. [11]

        Influences:

        • estradiol
      • Receptor: LHCGR-1

        Induced phenotype:

        • regulation of ovulation
          • Luteinizing hormone is important for progesterone and prostaglandin secretion and ovulation. [5]

        Influences:

        • progesterone
          • Progesterone secretion was enhanced by all agents that caused down-regulationo f the LH receptor; however, there was little correlation between progesterone secretion and down-regulation [5]
        • estrogen
          • In females, luteinizing hormone receptor activation is required for estrogen synthesis , and LH surge from the pituitary triggers ovulation and luteinization of granulosa cell to form corpus luteum. [9]
      • Receptor: AR

        Induced phenotype:

        • ovarian follicle development
          • Studies with AR knockout mice have revealed that AR function is essential for maintaining female fertility, notably through optimizing the conditions for follicular growth, final follicle development and ovulation. [12]
      • Receptor: PRLR

        Influences:

        • estrogen
          • In granulose cells. prolactin inhibits estrogen synthesis. [10]
      • Receptor: ER-alpha

        Induced phenotype:

        • reproduction
        • ovarian follicle development
          • Higher ER alpha gene expression in granulosa cells in patients with endometriosis, compared with patients with tubular infertility, implies that endometriosis may cause ovarian dysfunction. [13]
      • Receptor: ER-beta

        Induced phenotype:

        • reproduction
        • ovarian follicle development
          • ER beta is upregulated in patients with endometriosis. Elevated ER expression might be a leading cause of ovarian dysfunction. [13]
      • Receptor: leptin receptor

        • Transcripts encoding both the long and short isoforms of the leptin receptor were present in human granulosa cells; however, the short isoforms were expressed at much higher levels. [14]

        Induced phenotype:

        • negative regulation of steroid hormone biosynthetic
          • Leptin inhibited insulin-induced steroidogenesis by bovine granulosa cells. [15]
          • Leptin, at physiologic concentrations, directly affects insulin-induced steroidogenesis of granulosa cells. Normally fluctuating concentrations of leptin in blood may play an important role in communicating the metabolic status of the animal to the reproductive system. [15]
          • Leptin significantly suppresses LH-induced estradiol production. This is consistent with an endocrine action of leptin on the human ovary, with possible implications for female reproduction in health and disease. [14]
          • High dose of leptin suppressed LH-stimulated estradiol production in human granulosa cells. [14]
      • Receptor: angiotensin II type 1 receptor

        Induced phenotype:

        • regulation of angiogenesis
          • In conjunction with the angiotensin II type 1 receptor, angiotensin II mediates angiogenesis in the ovary via secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor. [16]
      • Receptor: BMP receptor type IB

        Influences:

        • progesterone
          • BMP-4, a known ligand of Alk6, inhibits progesterone secretion by ovine granulosa cells in the absence of FSH. [6]
          • BMP-4 modulates progesterone by inhibiting the steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) transcriptional activity on steroidogenic gene promotors. In FSH-induced conditions, this mechanism might be reinforced by an inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity. [7]
        • estradiol
          • BMP-4 and BMP-7 enhance FSH-dependent estradiol production, suggesting that BMP factors regulate granulosa cell differentiation, particularty in delaying the luteinization process. [4]
      Reference