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Details for anatomical structure: heart

EndoNet ID: ENC00048

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Synonyms

heart, coeur, Cor

General information

The hollow muscular organ which acts as a pump by its rhythmic contractions in order to maintain the circulation of the blood in the organism; it is divided by a musculomembranous septum into two halves, each of which consists of a receiving chamber (atrium) and an ejecting chamber (ventricle)

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0048127

Larger structures

    Substructures

      Secreted hormones

      • Hormone: urocortin

      • Hormone: FGF-2

        • Cardiac mesoderm expresses fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) 1, 2, and 8, and causes the foregut endoderm to develop into the liver. [1]
      • Hormone: cardiotrophin 1

        • Cardiotrophin-1 displays early expression in the murine heart tube and promotes cardiac myocyte survival. [2]
      • Hormone: CNTF

        • CNTF mRNA is widely expressed in the brain, heart, lung, liver, kidney and testis of the rat, in addition to preferential expression in the sciatic nerve. [3]
      • Hormone: humanin

      • Hormone: IL-15

      • Hormone: MCP-2

      • Hormone: hepcidin

      • Hormone: BMP2

      • Hormone: IL-1F8

      • Hormone: MIP-1 delta

      • Hormone: eotaxin-3

      • Hormone: atrial natriuretic factor

      • Hormone: laminin-5B

      • Hormone: Dkk2

      • Hormone: Dkk2

      • Hormone: SFRP1

      • Hormone: sFRP-2

      • Hormone: sFRP-3

      • Hormone: sFRP-5

      • Hormone: sclerostin

      • Hormone: laminin alpha-4 chain

      • Hormone: laminin alpha-5 chain

      • Hormone: laminin gamma-3 chain

      • Hormone: TNFSF12

      • Hormone: semaphorin 3F

      • Hormone: semaphorin 3C

      • Hormone: BAFF

      • Hormone: WISP-2

      • Hormone: WISP1

      • Hormone: CTGF

      • Hormone: fractalkine

      • Hormone: SEMA4D

      • Hormone: IL-17D

      • Hormone: CYR61

      • Hormone: TIMP-4

      • Hormone: PD-L1

      • Hormone: VEGF-183

      • Hormone: ECM1a

      • Hormone: SMOC-1 isoform 1

      • Hormone: insulin-like peptide INSL5

      • Hormone: elastase-2

      • Hormone: vasorin

      • Hormone: FAM3A

      • Hormone: VEGFB

        • Expressed in almost all tissues with the highest amounts in heart, pancreas and skeletal muscle. Not expressed in liver.
      • Hormone: FGF-23

      • Hormone: Oxytocin-Neurophysin 1

        • However, OT is also synthesized in peripheral tissues, e.g. uterus, placeta, amnion, corpus luteum, testis and heart. [4]

      Receptors

      • Receptor: PLXND1

      • Receptor: GL-R

        Induced phenotype:

        • stimulation of inotropic and chronotropic activity
      • Receptor: insulin receptor

      • Receptor: dopamine receptor D5

      • Receptor: glucocorticoid receptor

      • Receptor: GR-beta

      • Receptor: melanocortin receptor 3

      • Receptor: PPARgamma1

        • In this paper it is not clear whether it is γ1 or another γ receptor isoform it only says: " PPARγ regulates terminal epithelial differentiation of the trophoblast, which, given the ubiquitous expression of PPARγ in epithelia of endocrine and exocrine tissues, could apply to additional organs. Most importantly, we unravel the existence of a previously unrecognized functional link between the placenta and the developing heart, which could shed new light on the origins of congenital cardiomyopathies [5]
        • PPARγ1 had the broadest tissue expression(...)PPARγ1 mRNA was found in the heart, large and small intestines, colon, kidney, pancreas, spleen and skeletal muscle. [6]

        Induced phenotype:

        • regulation of glucose homeostasis
          • PPAR-gamma is expressed in the heart, one tissue where most of the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake occurs. [7]
      • Receptor: histamine H4 receptor

      • Receptor: PPAR-gamma2

        Induced phenotype:

        • regulation of glucose homeostasis
          • PPAR-gamma is expressed in the heart, one tissue where most of the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake occurs. [7]
      • Receptor: angiotensin II type 1 receptor

      • Receptor: angiotensin receptor 2

        Induced phenotype:

        • cell growth
          • Angiotensin 2 binding sites have been identified in the human heart and AT2 receptor may be involved in cell growth and proliferation. [8]
      • Receptor: leptin receptor

        Induced phenotype:

        • regulation of cardiac myocyte metabolism
          • Leptin can regulate the baseline physiology of the heart, including myocyte contractility, hypertrophy, apoptosis and metabolism. [9]
          • Db/db mouse has abnormal left ventricular function in vivo, with impaired glucose uptake during ischemia, leading to increased myocardial damage. [10]
          • Although the hearts of glucose-intolerant ob/ob mice are capable of maintaining their function under conditions of increased fatty acid supply and hyperinsulinemia, they are insulin-resistant, metabolically inefficient, and unable to modulate substrate utilization in response to changes in insulin and fatty acid supply. [11]
      • Receptor: BMP receptor type II

      • Receptor: frizzled 1

      • Receptor: frizzled 10

      • Receptor: frizzled 8

      • Receptor: PTC1

      • Receptor: neuropilin 1

        Induced phenotype:

        • patterning of blood vessels
          • Semaphorin 3a is a chemorepellent with multiple guidance functions, including cardiac vescular patterning and branching morphogenesis. [12]
      • Receptor: TNFRSF12A

        Induced phenotype:

        • positive regulation of smooth muscle proliferation
          • TNFSF12 induces proliferation of human aortic smooth muscle cells in vitro. [13]
      • Receptor: CysLTR1

      • Receptor: CysLTR2

      • Receptor: Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1

        Induced phenotype:

        • heart development
          • Moderate overexpression of VEGF1 from its endogenous locus results in aberrant heart development and lethality at E12.5-14, which shows essential role of regulated signalling during development. [14]
      • Receptor: sVEGF-R1

      • Receptor: renin receptor

        • High levels found in the heart, brain, placenta, and lower levels in the kidney and liver. [15]
      • Receptor: VPAC1

      • Receptor: LTB4-R1

      • Receptor: RXR-alpha

      • Receptor: IL-10R-alpha

      • Receptor: IL-18R1

      • Receptor: PPAR-alpha

        • PPARα is expressed at high levels in organs that carry out significant catabolism of fatty acids such as the brown adipose tissue, liver, heart, kidney, and intestine [16]
      • Receptor: fibroblast growth factor receptor-like 1

        Induced phenotype:

        • valvulogenesis
      • Receptor: vasorin

      • Receptor: CRF-R1

      • Receptor: CRF-R2

      • Receptor: CB1

        Induced phenotype:

        • atrial muscle contraction
          • Binding of cannabinoids to CB1 receptors decrease contraction in atrial myocardium. [17]
      • Receptor: IL-28R-alpha-v2

      • Receptor: IL-28R-alpha-v1

      • Receptor: CHRNA1-2

      • Receptor: VLDLR

        Induced phenotype:

        • transport of fatty acids
          • VLDLR functions as a receptor for very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). In the rabbit its mRNA is expressed mainly in cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, all of which tissues utilize fatty acids as a source of energy. [18]
        • positive regulation of vasodilation
          • Selective VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptor activation in the coronary circulation produces vasodilation. [19]
      • Receptor: PRLR

      • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 3

      • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1

      • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 3

      • Receptor: Probable G-protein coupled receptor 132

      • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 5

      • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 4

      • Receptor: Ovarian cancer G-protein coupled receptor 1

      • Receptor: G-protein coupled receptor 4

      • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1

      • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 2

        Induced phenotype:

        • heart development
          • A zebrafish mutation in the mil gene indicates a role of S1P2 receptor in the development of the cardiovascular system. Mutants showed a defective migration of the cardiac muscle progenitor cells from lateral positions to the midline resulting in the development of two hearts. [20]
      • Receptor: 5-HT-2B

        • Binding of serotonin to 5-HT-2B acitvates PI3K/Akt and ERK kinases in cardiomyocytes to protect mitochondrial damage thereby preventing apoptosis. [21]

        Induced phenotype:

        • negative regulation of apoptosis
          • Serotonin via the 5-HT2B-receptor protects cardiomyocytes against serum deprivation-induced apoptosis. [21]
          • 5-HT-2B signaling regulate mitochondrial function and structure thereby controlling apoptosis and myofibrillas organisation in the heart. [21]
      • Receptor: AR

        • Isoform 2 is mainly expressed in heart and skeletal muscle. [22]

        Induced phenotype:

        • cardiac hypertrophy
          • Androgen receptors are present in cardiac myocyte from multiple species and modulate the cardiac phenotype (hypertrophy), [23]
      Reference