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Details for anatomical structure: hippocampus

EndoNet ID: ENC00050

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Synonyms

hippocampus, hippocampus major, Hippocampus

General information

A curved elongated ridge that is an important part of the limbic system, a complex, internally convoluted structure that forms the medial margin of the cortical mantle of the cerebral hemisphere, bordering the choroid fissure of the lateral ventricle, and composed of two gyri, together with their white matter, the alveus and fimbria hippocampi

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0031800

Larger structures

    Substructures

      Secreted hormones

      • Hormone: Dkk1

        • Dkk-1 is specifically found in degenerating neurons of patients affected by mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis. [1]
        • All samples (bioptic or autoptic) with histological evidence of hippocampal sclerosis showed a robust expression of Dkk-1 in the hippocampus. [1]
      • Hormone: NRG-1

      • Hormone: neuregulin-2

        • Don-1 is highly expressed in restricted regions of the cerebellum and hippocampus. [2]
      • Hormone: NOV

      • Hormone: CTGF

      • Hormone: NPB23

      • Hormone: NPB29

      • Hormone: CYR61

      • Hormone: ADNP

      • Hormone: Virodhamine

        • Concentration of virodhamine was similar to anandamide. [3]
      • Hormone: sAPPalpha

        Influenced by:

        • 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 4
          in hippocampus
          • Activation of the human 5-HT(4) receptor stimulates the secretion of the non-amyloidogenic soluble form of the amyloid precursor protein (sAPPalpha). 5-HT enhanced the level of secreted sAPPalpha in a time- and dose-dependent manner in Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing the h5-HT(4) receptor isoform. [4]
      • Hormone: sAPP

        Influenced by:

        • mGluR1
          in hippocampus
          • Glutamate-induced APP-S secretion required activation of phospholipase C, which resulted in inositol 1, 4,5-trisphosphate production, as shown by the rapid glutamate-induced accumulation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. [5]
      • Hormone: pigment epithelium-derived factor

        Influenced by:

        • GPR39 protein
          in hippocampus
          • GPR39 overexpression leads to increased secretion of the cytoprotective pigment epithelium-dereived growth factor (PEDF). [6]
      • Hormone: cortistatin

      • Hormone: erythropoietin

      • Hormone: noggin

      • Hormone: norrin

      • Hormone: NRG1-beta3

      • Hormone: PAI-2

      • Hormone: brain-derived neurotrophic factor

        • The activation of the 5-HT-2B receptor sybtypes decrease the BDNF mRNA levels within the dentate gyrus region of the hippocampus. [7]
      • Hormone: acetylcholine

        Influenced by:

        • 5-HT3 receptor
          in hippocampus
          • Increasing of hippocampal ACh release is mediated via serotonin activation of 5-HT-3 serotonergic receptors in the dorsal hippocampus. [8]
        • dopamine receptor D1
          in hippocampus
          • The hippocampal ACh release is facilitated by the local stimulation of D1 receptors. [9]
      • Hormone: Wnt-3

      • Hormone: fractalkine

      • Hormone: norepinephrine

        Influenced by:

        • 5-HT3 receptor
          in hippocampus
          • The activation of 5-HT-3 receptors mediate increased potassium- evoked release of noradrenalin from preloaded slice of rabbit hippocampus. [10]
      • Hormone: GABA

        Influenced by:

        • 5-ht-6R
          in hippocampus
          • The activation of 5-HT6 receptors cause an increase in spontaneous release of GABA. [11]

      Receptors

      • Receptor: sst4

      • Receptor: galanin receptor 3

      • Receptor: galanin receptor 2

      • Receptor: ER-alpha

        Induced phenotype:

        • positive regulation of synaptic plasticity
          • studies of rodent hippocampus have highlighted the importance of estrogen receptors, particularly ER alpha as mediators of synaptic plasticity. [12]
      • Receptor: mineralcorticoid receptor

      • Receptor: 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 4

        Influences:

        • sAPPalpha
          • Activation of the human 5-HT(4) receptor stimulates the secretion of the non-amyloidogenic soluble form of the amyloid precursor protein (sAPPalpha). 5-HT enhanced the level of secreted sAPPalpha in a time- and dose-dependent manner in Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing the h5-HT(4) receptor isoform. [4]
      • Receptor: frizzled 3

      • Receptor: frizzled 10

      • Receptor: NPY2-R

      • Receptor: GPR7

      • Receptor: NMU-R1

      • Receptor: mGluR4

      • Receptor: ADAM17

      • Receptor: 5-ht-5 receptor

      • Receptor: CB1

        Influences:

        • GABA
      • Receptor: EAAT3

      • Receptor: 5-HT3 receptor

        Influences:

        • acetylcholine
          • Increasing of hippocampal ACh release is mediated via serotonin activation of 5-HT-3 serotonergic receptors in the dorsal hippocampus. [8]
        • norepinephrine
          • The activation of 5-HT-3 receptors mediate increased potassium- evoked release of noradrenalin from preloaded slice of rabbit hippocampus. [10]
      • Receptor: 5-HT-2C

      • Receptor: 5-HT-2A

      • Receptor: CRF-R1

      • Receptor: CRF-R2

      • Receptor: mGluR1

        Influences:

        • sAPP
          • Glutamate-induced APP-S secretion required activation of phospholipase C, which resulted in inositol 1, 4,5-trisphosphate production, as shown by the rapid glutamate-induced accumulation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. [5]
      • Receptor: GPR39 protein

        Influences:

        • pigment epithelium-derived factor
          • GPR39 overexpression leads to increased secretion of the cytoprotective pigment epithelium-dereived growth factor (PEDF). [6]
      • Receptor: PLXNB1

        Induced phenotype:

        • axon guidance
          • CD100/Sema4D induced growth cone collapse in hippocampal neurons. [13]
          • CD100/Sema4D-Plexin-B1 interactions help to guide developing neuronal cells. [14]
      • Receptor: PRLR

      • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 3

      • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1

        Induced phenotype:

        • positive regulation of neuron differentiation
          • LPA signaling controls differentiation of immortalized hippocampal progenitor cells via LPA4. [15]
      • Receptor: 5-HT-1A

        • The 5-HT-1A receptors are located on the postsynaptic targets of seretonergic afferents. [16]
        • 5-HT-1A activation results in the opening of the K+ channels, thereby producing membrane hyperpolarization and a decrease in membrane resistance. [17]
        • The activation of the postsynaptic receptor facilitate 5-HT (serotonin) neurotransmission. [18]

        Induced phenotype:

        • supression of cAMP production
          • Agonist binding at the receptor leads to G-protein-mediated suppression of cAMP production and enhanced K+-channel conductance. [19]
      • Receptor: dopamine receptor D5

      • Receptor: melatonin receptor type 1B

      • Receptor: apelin receptor

      • Receptor: OPRL1

      • Receptor: CX3CR1

      • Receptor: 5-ht-6R

        Influences:

        • GABA
          • The activation of 5-HT6 receptors cause an increase in spontaneous release of GABA. [11]
      • Receptor: dopamine receptor D1

        Influences:

        • acetylcholine
          • The hippocampal ACh release is facilitated by the local stimulation of D1 receptors. [9]
      Reference