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Details for anatomical structure: immune system

EndoNet ID: ENC00055

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Synonyms

immune system, ,

General information

An intricate complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components which provides a defense (immune response) against foreign organisms or substances and aberrant native cells

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0014686

Larger structures

    Substructures

      Secreted hormones

      • Hormone: NmU-25

      • Hormone: leukocystatin

      Receptors

      • Receptor: PPARgamma1

        • PPARγ1 has a broader expression pattern that extends to settings such as the gut, brain, vascular cell and specific kinds of immune and inflammatory cells. [1]
      • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1

        Induced phenotype:

        • positive regulation of chemotaxis
          • The effect of S1P on S1PR1-mediated chemotaxis can depend on S1P concentration in vitro; low concentrations of S1P promote chemotaxis. [2]
        • negative regulation of chemotaxis
          • The effect of S1P on S1PR1-mediated chemotaxis can depend on S1P concentration in vitro; high concentrations of S1P seem to be inhibitory. This inhibitory effect might partly be due to the downregulation of S1PR1 by high concentrations of S1P. [3]
        • regulation of leukocyte migration
          • S1PR1 controls the exit of haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) from non-lymphoid peripheral tissues to the draining lymphatics. [4]
        • regulation of leukocyte migration
          • S1P signalling has a role in both the homing of immune cells to lymphoid organs, and in controlling their egress into blood and lymph. [5]
          • S1PR1 is decisive for the exit of mature thymocytes — both conventional T cells and natural killer T (NKT) cells — from the thymus. [6]
      • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 3

      • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 2

      • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 4

      • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 5

      • Receptor: Ovarian cancer G-protein coupled receptor 1

      • Receptor: G-protein coupled receptor 4

      • Receptor: Psychosine receptor

      • Receptor: PRLR

        Induced phenotype:

        • rheumatoid arthritis
          • Prolactin has been shown to be increases and to effect a number of autoimmune states, such as rheumatoid arthritis. [7]
          • Children with antinuclear antibodies seropositive juvenile rheumatoid arthritis have elevated serum levels of the immunostimulatory hormone prolactin. [7]
        • graft-versus-host disease
          • Prolactin is released by mononuclear leucocytes and is involved in lymphocyte activation. It plays a hitherto unrecognized role in the pathogenesis of GVHD in humans. [8]
          • Prolactin has been shown to be increased in and to effect a number of autoimmune states, such as graft-versus-host disease. [8]
        • adjuvant arthritis
          • Prolactin has been shown to be increases and to effect a number of autoimmune states, such as adjuvant arthritis. [9]
      Reference