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Details for anatomical structure: mammary gland

EndoNet ID: ENC00076

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Synonyms

mammary gland, lactiferous gland, Glandula mammaria

General information

The compound alveolar apocrine secretory gland that forms the breast; it consists of 15 to 24 lobes, each consisting of many lobules, separated by adipose tissue and fibrous septa; the parenchyma of the resting gland consists of ducts; the alveoli develop only during pregnancy

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0048580

Larger structures

    Substructures

      Secreted hormones

      • Hormone: BCA-1

      • Hormone: semaphorin 3F

      • Hormone: NOV

      • Hormone: CTGF

      • Hormone: CST6

        • Cystatin M is expressed by normal mammary cells and a variety of human tissues. [1]
      • Hormone: uteroglobin

      • Hormone: FGF-1 isoform 1

      • Hormone: FGF-2

      • Hormone: PTH

        Influenced by:

        • CaSR
          in mammary_gland
          • The CaR is expressed prominently in the parathyroid gland and in the kidney, and activation of the receptor by increased Ca2+ suppresses PTH secretion and increases renal calcium excretion [2]
      • Hormone: PTHLH

        Influenced by:

        • CaSR
          in mammary_gland
          • The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is a G-protein-coupled receptor that signals in response to extracellular calcium and regulates parathyroid hormone secretion. The CaR is also expressed on normal mammary epithelial cells (MMECs), where it has been shown to inhibit secretion of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and participate in the regulation of calcium and bone metabolism during lactation. [2]

      Receptors

      • Receptor: CaSR

        Influences:

        • PTH
          • The CaR is expressed prominently in the parathyroid gland and in the kidney, and activation of the receptor by increased Ca2+ suppresses PTH secretion and increases renal calcium excretion [2]
        • PTHLH
          • The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is a G-protein-coupled receptor that signals in response to extracellular calcium and regulates parathyroid hormone secretion. The CaR is also expressed on normal mammary epithelial cells (MMECs), where it has been shown to inhibit secretion of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and participate in the regulation of calcium and bone metabolism during lactation. [2]
        • ACTH
          • CaSR activation led to the stimulation of cAMP production, and PTHrP and ACTH secretion from these cells. [3]
      • Receptor: PRLR

        Induced phenotype:

        • synthesis of milk proteins
          • Prolactin is the hormone primarily responsible for the synthesis of milk proteins. [4]
        • synthesis of lipids
          • Prolactin is the hormone primarily responsible for the synthesis of lipids. [5]
        • synthesis of lactose
          • Prolactin is the hormone primarily responsible for the synthesis of lactose. [6]
        • mammary gland development
          • The terminal stage of mammary gland development, lobuloalveolar growth, is directly regulated by prolactin. [7]
      • Receptor: ER-beta

        Induced phenotype:

        • mammary gland development
          • Estrogens are key regulators in mammary development and breast cancer and their effects are mediated by estrogen receptors ER alpha and beta. [8]
      • Receptor: ER-alpha

        Induced phenotype:

        • mammary gland development
          • ER alpha signaling is essential for the development of the adult mammary gland. ER alpha knock out mice lack the development that occurs during pre- and postpubertal stages. [9]
          • Due to its ability to stimulate proliferation ER alpha is also a driving force during mammary gland tumorigenesis. [10]
      • Receptor: progesterone receptor

        Induced phenotype:

        • mammary gland morphogenesis
          • The progesterone receptor exists as two isoforms, PRA and PRB, differing by the length of the N-terminal end and originating from translation reinitiation at an internal methionine codon. Studies with transgenic mice show that the ratio of both forms is essential for proper development of the mammary gland. [11]
      • Receptor: TGF-beta type II receptor

      • Receptor: neuropilin 1

      • Receptor: glypican 1

      • Receptor: OTR

        Induced phenotype:

        • milk ejection
      Reference