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Details for anatomical structure: cardiac muscle

EndoNet ID: ENC00086

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Synonyms

cardiac muscle, myocardium, muscle of heart, Myocardium

General information

The middle layer of the heart; the cardiac muscle consists of anastomosing transversely striated muscle fibers formed of cells united at intercalated disks, the one or two nuclei of each cell are centrally located and the longitudinally arranged myofibrils have considerable sarcoplasm around them; connective tissue is limitted to reticular and fine collagenous fibers

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0052140

Larger structures

    Substructures

      Secreted hormones

      • Hormone: HCC-1

      • Hormone: LFA-3

        • Furthermore, the unexpected finding that LFA-3 is strongly expressed on intercalated discs of cardiac muscle may possibly be related to a non-immune function, or indicate a structurally similar epitope expressed by an unrelated molecule within this tissue. [1]

      Receptors

      • Receptor: beta-1 adrenoreceptor

        Induced phenotype:

        • positive regulation of cardiac muscle contraction
          • Actions of the beta1 receptor include the increase in cardiac output via increasing the heart rate in the sinotrial node,increasing atrial cardiac muscle contractility, increasing contractility and automaticity of the ventricular cardiac muscle and increasing conduction and automaticity of the atrioventricular node. [2]
      • Receptor: beta-2 adrenoreceptor

        Induced phenotype:

        • positive regulation of cardiac muscle contraction
          • Beta2 adrenoreceptors increase the cardiac output to a minor degree compared to beta1 adrenoreceptors. [2]
      • Receptor: beta-3 adrenoreceptor

      • Receptor: PRLR

      • Receptor: T-cadherin

      • Receptor: FGFR-1

        • Sectioning of these hearts revealed that FGFR1 was expressed in the myocardium. [3]

        Induced phenotype:

        • regulation of cell proliferation
          • We can conclude that FGFR1c and FGFR2c are the only FGFRs functionally required in the developing myocardium at this stage of development. [3]
      • Receptor: FGFR-2

        • Sectioning of these hearts revealed that isoform c of FGFR2 was expressed in the myocardium. [3]

        Induced phenotype:

        • regulation of cell proliferation
          • We can conclude that FGFR1c and FGFR2c are the only FGFRs functionally required in the developing myocardium at this stage of development. [3]
      Reference