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Details for anatomical structure: ovary

EndoNet ID: ENC00097

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Synonyms

ovary, , Ovarium

General information

One of two small oval bodies situated on either side of the uterus on the posterior surface of the broad ligament; the structures in which the ova (eggs) are developed and released during ovulation; the ovary's stroma is a vascular connective tissue containing numbers of ovarian follicles enclosing the ova

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0048130

Larger structures

    Substructures

      Secreted hormones

      • Hormone: IGF-1

      • Hormone: C-C motif chemokine 2

        • CCL2 is expressed in normal human ovarian surface epithelium (HOSE) cells and is silenced in most ovarian cancer cell lines. [1]
      • Hormone: MCP-2

      • Hormone: BMP2

      • Hormone: eotaxin-3

      • Hormone: CCL27

      • Hormone: CCL28

      • Hormone: sFRP-2

      • Hormone: gremlin-2

      • Hormone: gremlin-1

      • Hormone: laminin alpha-4 chain

      • Hormone: TNFSF18

      • Hormone: semaphorin 3C

      • Hormone: cardiotrophin 1

      • Hormone: WISP-2

      • Hormone: WISP1

      • Hormone: WISP3

      • Hormone: NPB23

      • Hormone: NPB29

      • Hormone: VEGF-165

      • Hormone: angiotensin II

        • The luteal tissue is the major site of Ang II, ACE, AT1R, and VEGF. [2]

        Influenced by:

        • angiotensin II type 1 receptor
          in ovary
          • There is considerable evidence for a mammalian ovarian renin–angiotensin system, which may influence ovulation, angiogenesis and steroidogenesis via the autocrine and/or paracrine actions of the biologically active product of the cascade, angiotensin II. [3]
      • Hormone: Cystatin-C

      • Hormone: EG-VEGF

      • Hormone: ECM1a

      • Hormone: SMOC-1 isoform 1

      • Hormone: relaxin-2 isoform 1

      • Hormone: insulin-like peptide INSL5

      • Hormone: dehydro-3-epiandrosterone

      • Hormone: IL-28A

      • Hormone: IL-28B

      • Hormone: IL-29

      • Hormone: kallikrein 10

        • Human kallikrein 10 (hK10) is a secreted serine protease that is highly expressed in ovarian tissue. [4]
      • Hormone: BMP-15

      • Hormone: chemerin

      Receptors

      • Receptor: CRF-R1

      • Receptor: PPARgamma1

        • The peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is expressed in many cell types including mammary epithelium, ovary, macrophages, and B- and T-cells [5]
      • Receptor: TLR5

      • Receptor: PPAR-gamma2

      • Receptor: angiotensin receptor 2

      • Receptor: laminin receptor

      • Receptor: frizzled 1

      • Receptor: frizzled 2

      • Receptor: angiotensin II type 1 receptor

        Induced phenotype:

        • steroidogenesis
          • Angiotensin II has many roles in the ovary, including steroidogenesis. [3]
        • angiogenesis
          • Angiotensin II has many roles in the ovary, including angiogenesis. [3]
        • ovarian follicle development
          • Angiotensin II has many roles in the ovary, including folliculogenesis. [3]

        Influences:

        • angiotensin II
          • There is considerable evidence for a mammalian ovarian renin–angiotensin system, which may influence ovulation, angiogenesis and steroidogenesis via the autocrine and/or paracrine actions of the biologically active product of the cascade, angiotensin II. [3]
      • Receptor: apelin receptor

      • Receptor: glypican 1

      • Receptor: ROBO2

      • Receptor: progesterone receptor

        Induced phenotype:

        • mammary gland development
          • The ovarian steroid hormone progesterone, important for female reproductive functions, including uterine and mammary gland development. [6]
        • maintainance of pregnancy
          • The ovarian steroid hormone progesterone, important for female reproductive functions, including maintainance of pregnancy [6]
        • sexual behavior
          • The ovarian steroid hormone progesterone, important for female reproductive functions, including sexual behavior. [6]
        • regulation of ovulation
          • The ovarian steroid hormone progesterone is important for female reproductive functions, including ovulation. [6]
      • Receptor: PRLR

        Induced phenotype:

        • maturation of germ cells
          • Prolcatin induces maturation of germ cells. Prolactin appears to be an important constituent in the process of oocyte maturation, promoting preimplantation embryonic development. [7]
        • amenorrhea
          • In humans, hyperporlactinemia has been shown to be associated with amenorrhea. [8]

        Influences:

        • progesterone
          • The luteotropic action of prolactin involves stimulation of progesterone production by luteal cells. [9]
      • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1

        Induced phenotype:

        • Ovarian cancer
          • In addition to the involvement of LPA2, there is evidence for contribution of LPA1 to the tumorigenic activity of LPA. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of LPA1 has been shown to reduce the proliferation and metastasis of OCCs. [10]
      • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 3

        Induced phenotype:

        • Ovarian cancer
          • LPAR3 may play a role in the development of ovarian cancer. [11]
        • Ovarian cancer
          • LPA3, in addition to LPA2, was associated with increased OCC aggressiveness in vivo due to their contribution to the tumorigenic activity of LPA. [11]
      • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 4

      • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 2

        Induced phenotype:

        • Ovarian cancer
          • LPA receptor 2 is a distinctive marker of ovarian cancer cells that transduces growth-promoting signals from the high local concentrations of LPA characteristic of aggressive ovarian cancer. [12]
        • Ovarian cancer
          • LPA was shown to have potent protumorigenic effects on OCCs including cell survival, proliferation, increased migration and tissue invasion, activation of vascular endothelial growth factor, metalloproteinase, and urokinase-type plasminogen activator, and protection from cisplatin toxicity. These effects are mediated primarily by the activation of LPA2, which is known to promote proliferation, migration, and invasion of gynecological cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. [13]
          • LPA2 is upregulated in OCCs and can be activated by low nanomolar concentrations of LPA, well below the basal serum concentration. [14]
      • Receptor: G-protein coupled receptor 4

      • Receptor: steroidogenic factor 1

        • The presence of potential SF-l binding sites in the promoter regions of nonadrenal steroidogenic enzymes and the expression of SF-1 in ovary and testis suggested that SF-l might also contribute to steroidogenic enzyme gene expression in gonadal tissue [15]
      Reference