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Details for anatomical structure: placenta

EndoNet ID: ENC00112

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Synonyms

placenta, , Plazenta

General information

The vascular organ in mammals that unites the fetus to the maternal uterus and mediates its metabolic exchanges through a more or less intimate association of uterine mucosal with chorionic and usually allantoic tissues permitting exchange of material by diffusion between the maternal and fetal vascular systems but without direct contact between maternal and fetal blood and typically involving the interlocking of fingerlike vascular chorionic villi with corresponding modified areas of the uterine mucosa

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0039448

Larger structures

    Substructures

      Secreted hormones

      • Hormone: hCG

      • Hormone: CSH1

      • Hormone: TRH

      • Hormone: PTHLH

      • Hormone: HGF

        • Localisation of hepatocyte growth factor and its receptor (c-met) protein and mRNA in human term placenta. [1]
      • Hormone: galectin-13

      • Hormone: PlGF-2

        • While the three forms are present in most placental tissues, the PlGF-2 is specific to early (8 week) placenta. [2]
      • Hormone: PlGF-1

      • Hormone: IL-15

      • Hormone: IL-2

      • Hormone: CXCL11

      • Hormone: inhibin A

      • Hormone: MCP-2

      • Hormone: BMP2

      • Hormone: IL-1F8

      • Hormone: MPIF-1

      • Hormone: CCL27

      • Hormone: PARC

      • Hormone: angiopoietin-like protein 4

      • Hormone: leptin

        • A low level of leptin may be produced in gastric epithelium, placenta and skeletal muscle. [3]
        • Leptin is secreted by placenta. [4]

        Influenced by:

        • ER-alpha
          in placenta
          • Estradiol upregulates leptin expression in placental cells. This effect probably involves both genomic and nongenomic actions via crosstalk between ER alpha and MAPK and PI3K signal transduction pathways. [5]
      • Hormone: osteonectin

      • Hormone: fibulin 1A

      • Hormone: fibulin 1B

      • Hormone: annexin A2

      • Hormone: laminin gamma-2 chain

      • Hormone: galectin-1

      • Hormone: sFRP-3

      • Hormone: Dkk1

      • Hormone: noggin

      • Hormone: laminin alpha-4 chain

      • Hormone: laminin alpha-5 chain

      • Hormone: laminin gamma-3 chain

      • Hormone: APOD

      • Hormone: semaphorin 3F

      • Hormone: BAFF

      • Hormone: WISP1

      • Hormone: WISP3

      • Hormone: PlGF-3

      • Hormone: SEMA4D

      • Hormone: NPB23

      • Hormone: NPB29

      • Hormone: CYR61

      • Hormone: laminin alpha-2 chain

      • Hormone: Cystatin-C

      • Hormone: PD-L1

      • Hormone: PSBG-5

        • Synthesized by syncitiotrophoblast of the placenta. [2]
      • Hormone: EG-VEGF

      • Hormone: BD-1

      • Hormone: soluble VEGFR-1

      • Hormone: ECM1a

      • Hormone: relaxin-2 isoform 2

      • Hormone: relaxin-2 isoform 1

      • Hormone: insulin-like peptide 4

      • Hormone: insulin-like peptide INSL5

      • Hormone: pregnancy-associated plasma protein A

      • Hormone: PAI-2

      • Hormone: vasorin

      • Hormone: IL-28A

      • Hormone: IL-28B

      • Hormone: IL-29

      • Hormone: FAM3D

      • Hormone: FAM3A

      • Hormone: TNF-alpha

        • TNF-alpha is synthesized and secreted from the placenta. [6]
      • Hormone: IL-1 alpha

        • Tissue-extractable IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta immunoreactive proteins were readily detected in fresh placental membranes, but not placental villi. [7]
      • Hormone: IL-1 beta

        • Tissue-extractable IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta immunoreactive proteins were readily detected in fresh placental membranes, but not placental villi. [7]
      • Hormone: interleukin 6

      • Hormone: Oxytocin-Neurophysin 1

        • However, OT is also synthesized in peripheral tissues, e.g. uterus, placeta, amnion, corpus luteum, testis and heart. [8]
      • Hormone: estriol

      • Hormone: PrRP31

        • PrRP gene expression was detected in both the placenta and decidua. [9]
        • These tissues expressed PrRP mRNA throughout pregnancy and the level of PrRP mRNA expression somewhat increased during midpregnancy. [9]
        • Placental and decidual cells also expressed PrRP mRNA, in vitro. [9]
      • Hormone: fetuin-B

        • This fetuin-B transcript could be detected in the liver and also at a lower level in the placenta. [10]
      • Hormone: CSHL1

        • These data confirm the placental expression of the hCS-L gene. [11]

      Receptors

      • Receptor: PLXND1

      • Receptor: sst4

      • Receptor: PPARgamma1

        • In this paper it is not clear whether it is γ1 or another γ receptor isoform it only says: " PPARγ regulates terminal epithelial differentiation of the trophoblast, which, given the ubiquitous expression of PPARγ in epithelia of endocrine and exocrine tissues, could apply to additional organs. Most importantly, we unravel the existence of a previously unrecognized functional link between the placenta and the developing heart, which could shed new light on the origins of congenital cardiomyopathies [12]
      • Receptor: Tie2

      • Receptor: EP2

      • Receptor: EP3

      • Receptor: PGF2-alpha receptor

      • Receptor: PGI receptor

      • Receptor: TLR3

      • Receptor: TLR4

      • Receptor: TLR7

      • Receptor: TGFR-3

      • Receptor: TGF-beta type I receptor

      • Receptor: TGF-beta type II receptor

      • Receptor: ferroportin-1

      • Receptor: PPAR-gamma2

      • Receptor: MC1R

      • Receptor: EGFR isoform a

      • Receptor: thrombospondin receptor

      • Receptor: laminin receptor

      • Receptor: integrin beta-1

      • Receptor: B-CAM

      • Receptor: frizzled 1

      • Receptor: frizzled 10

      • Receptor: PTC1

      • Receptor: neuropilin 1

      • Receptor: leptin receptor

        • In humans, the leptin receptor is co-localized with leptin to the syncytiotrophoblast at the maternal interface. [13]
        • Placenta has both the long and the short isoforms of the leptin receptor. [14]

        Induced phenotype:

        • trophoblast cell proliferation
          • The leptin gene is expressed in placenta, where leptin promotes proliferation and survival of trophoblast cells [15]
      • Receptor: PLXNA2

      • Receptor: CysLTR1

      • Receptor: CysLTR2

      • Receptor: Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1

        Induced phenotype:

        • preeclampsia
          • Increased levels of soluble VEGFR1 variant (sFlt1) in the placenta and reduced levels of PlGF predict the subsequent development of preeclampsia. [16]
      • Receptor: sVEGF-R1

      • Receptor: renin receptor

        • High levels found in the heart, brain, placenta, and lower levels in the kidney and liver. [17]
      • Receptor: PACAP-R-1

        Induced phenotype:

        • positive regulation of vasodilation
          • PACAP has been detected at low concentrations throughout the uteroplacental unit, where it causes a concentration-dependent relaxation on stem villous and umbilical cord arteries. [18]
      • Receptor: VPAC1

        Induced phenotype:

        • regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure
          • Increased levels of VIP have been described in preeclampsia in women with untreated gestational proteinuric hypertension, representing a powerful compensatory mechanism to restore vascular perfusion of the uterus and placenta. [19]
      • Receptor: hepatocyte growth factor receptor

      • Receptor: PAF-R

      • Receptor: IL-10R-alpha

      • Receptor: IL-18R1

      • Receptor: GFR-alpha-2

      • Receptor: ER-alpha

        Influences:

        • leptin
          • Estradiol upregulates leptin expression in placental cells. This effect probably involves both genomic and nongenomic actions via crosstalk between ER alpha and MAPK and PI3K signal transduction pathways. [5]
      • Receptor: EPHB4

      • Receptor: SIGLEC-7

      • Receptor: vasorin

      • Receptor: ROBO1

      • Receptor: CRF-R1

      • Receptor: CRF-R2

      • Receptor: MRC2

      • Receptor: PRLR

        Induced phenotype:

        • multicellular organismal water homeostasis
          • PRL induces a redution in fluid volume in the amnion. [20]
      • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 3

      • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1

      • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 5

      • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 5

      • Receptor: Ovarian cancer G-protein coupled receptor 1

      • Receptor: Psychosine receptor

      • Receptor: parathyroid hormone 2 receptor

        • The PTH2 receptor is most likely to function in the brain and pancreas where its mRNA is particularly abundant, and possibly in the testis and placenta. [21]
        • (PTH2 receptor mRNA) ... is also detected in pancreas, placenta and lung on northern blots [22]
      • Receptor: Interleukin-22 receptor subunit alpha-1

        • issues that gave positive signals included placenta, skin, inflamed appendix, lung, gastrointestinal tract, lymph node, thymus, and spleen [23]
      • Receptor: PPAR beta/delta

        • Of the three isotypes, PPAR/ has the broadest expression pattern, and the levels of expression in certain tissues depend on the extent of cell proliferation and differentiation. Important functions have been assigned to this isotype in the skin, gut, placenta, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and brain [24]
      Reference