Status
Please wait ...

Details for anatomical structure: prostate

EndoNet ID: ENC00115

To link to the content of EndoNet use the EndoNet ID that is given on the detail pages in the format ENX0000, where X is a place holder for the type of the component (e. g. R for receptor or C for anatomical structure).
As URL for the linking append this ID to the detail page for this type of component.
For an hormone that would be:

http://endonet.bioinf.med.uni-goettingen.de/hormone/ENH00000

It is also possible to use the search of EndoNet to link to the right detail page. The URL should look like

http://endonet.bioinf.med.uni-goettingen.de/search/ENC00000
If the search pattern is unambigious the user is directed to the corresponding detail page.

Synonyms

prostate, prostate, Prostata

General information

Glandular, shestnut-shaped organ of the male genital apparatus surrounding the beginning of the urethra, it consists of two lateral lobes connected anteriorly by an isthmus and posteriorly by a middle lobe lying above and between the ejaculatory ducts; the prostate consists of 30 to 50 compound tubuloalveolar glands, between which is abundant stroma consisting of collagen and elastic fibers and many smooth muscle bundles; the secretion of the gland is a milky fluid that is discharged by excretory ducts into the prostatic urethra at the time of the emission of semen

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0046644

Larger structures

    Substructures

      Secreted hormones

      • Hormone: IGF-1

      • Hormone: lipocalin 2

        • NGAL was found in a variety of normal and pathological human tissues (cell type-specific pattern of expression in bronchus, stomach, small intestine, pancreas, kidney, prostate gland, and thymus). [1]
      • Hormone: PDGFC

        • Identification of a novel platelet-derived growth factor-like gene, fallotein, in the human reproductive tract. [2]
      • Hormone: IP-10

      • Hormone: CXCL11

      • Hormone: MCP-2

      • Hormone: BMP2

      • Hormone: BMP4

      • Hormone: MIP-3 alpha

      • Hormone: CCL28

      • Hormone: sFRP-2

      • Hormone: QRFP

      • Hormone: noggin

      • Hormone: semaphorin 3C

      • Hormone: cardiotrophin 1

      • Hormone: WISP3

      • Hormone: CTGF

      • Hormone: fractalkine

      • Hormone: SEMA4D

      • Hormone: follicular dendritic cell secreted peptide

      • Hormone: MSMB

      • Hormone: AGR2

      • Hormone: Cystatin-C

      • Hormone: uteroglobin

      • Hormone: BD-1

      • Hormone: ECM1a

      • Hormone: tomoregulin-2 ectodomain

      • Hormone: relaxin-2 isoform 2

      • Hormone: relaxin-2 isoform 1

      • Hormone: FGF-2

      • Hormone: insulin-like peptide INSL5

      • Hormone: GnRH-II (Isoform 1)

      • Hormone: IL-17C

      • Hormone: IL-28A

      • Hormone: IL-28B

      • Hormone: IL-29

      • Hormone: FAM3B-b

      • Hormone: TNFSF10

      • Hormone: urokinase-type plasminogen activator

      • Hormone: free PSA

        Influenced by:

        • SHBG-R
          in prostate
          • The gene for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) contains an androgen response element. After binding its cognate ligand, the androgen receptor (AR) interacts with this response element to initiate PSA mRNA transcription and secretion. In the absence of androgens, E2 in concert with SHBG-RSHBG, acts at the cell membrane to cause secretion of PSA and that this effect is blocked by anti-androgens. [3]

      Receptors

      • Receptor: AR

        Induced phenotype:

        • Androgen insensitivity syndromes
          • The androgen receptor (AR) is a high affinity receptor protein encoded on the human X-chromosome that mediates the actions of androgens during development and in the adult. Defects in this receptor protein result in a wide range of abnormalities of male sexual development. Studies in a number of different laboratories have identified mutations of the AR gene in subjects with androgen resistance syndromes. [4]
      • Receptor: PRLR

        Induced phenotype:

        • proliferation of epithelial cells
          • Prolactin induces the proliferation of human benign prostate hypertrophy epithelial cells. [5]
        • prostate gland growth
          • Prolactin has effects on accessory sex organs, it increases the weight of the prostate and seminal vesicle, in conjunction with androgens. [6]
        • regulation of androgen receptor signaling pathway
          • The effects of PRL on prostate include increased levels of androgen receptor. [7]
          • PRL and GH are involved in regulating AR synthesis, at least partially by direct action on the organ. [7]
        • positive regulation of secretion
          • The effects of PRL on prostate include increased epithelial secretory function. [8]
        • energy reserve metabolic process
          • The effects of Prolactin on prostate include augmented energy metabolism and an enhancement of citric acid production. [9]
        • positive regulation of insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling pathway
          • Prolactin has been reported to stimulate the level of IGF-I and IGF-I receptor in the prostate. [7]
          • PRL and GH are involved in regulating AR synthesis, at least partially by direct action on the organ. In this context IGF-I appears as a paracrine factor playing a role in epithelium/stroma interactions during prostatic development. [7]
        • positive regulation of lipid metabolic process
          • In the seminal vesicle, PRL increases lipid concentrations in the fluid, lipogenesis, and phosphomonoesterase and acid phosphatase activities. [10]
        • regulation of inflammatory response
          • The effects of PRL on prostate include involvement in estrogen-induced inflammation. [11]
          • Estradiol-induced inflammation in the rat lateral prostate is mediated at least in part by the release of PRL from the pituitary. [11]
      • Receptor: ER-beta

        Induced phenotype:

        • prostate cancer
          • In a prostasphere model using normal human prostate stem/progenitor cells expressing estrogen receptors it was shown that estrogens initiate and promote prostatic carcinogenesis in an androgen-supportet environment. [12]
      • Receptor: ER-alpha

        Induced phenotype:

        • prostate cancer
          • In a prostasphere model using normal human prostate stem/progenitor cells expressing estrogen receptors it was shown that estrogens initiate and promote prostatic carcinogenesis in an androgen-supportet environment. [12]
      • Receptor: alpha 1A-adrenoreceptor

      • Receptor: SHBG-R

        • SHBG binds with high affinity to a specofoc membrane receptor (RSHBG) in prostate stromal and epithelial cells. [13]

        Influences:

        • free PSA
          • The gene for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) contains an androgen response element. After binding its cognate ligand, the androgen receptor (AR) interacts with this response element to initiate PSA mRNA transcription and secretion. In the absence of androgens, E2 in concert with SHBG-RSHBG, acts at the cell membrane to cause secretion of PSA and that this effect is blocked by anti-androgens. [3]
      • Receptor: IL-11Ralpha

      • Receptor: TLR5

      • Receptor: laminin receptor

      • Receptor: frizzled 1

      • Receptor: IL-18R1

      • Receptor: IL-28R-alpha-v2

      • Receptor: IL-28R-alpha-v1

      • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1

      • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 2

      • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 3

      • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 4

      • Receptor: TNFRSF25

        Induced phenotype:

        • positive regulation of apoptosis
          • TNFRSF25 is weakly expressed in the prostate. One biological role of TNFRSF25 may be to trigger a cell-death program upon binding of its cognate ligand. [14]
          • In addition, TNFRSF25 appears to be capable of activating the transcription factor NF-κB, suggesting that, like TNFR1, this receptor may regulate distinct signaling pathways in different cellular contexts. [14]
      Reference