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Details for anatomical structure: skeleton muscle

EndoNet ID: ENC00122

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Synonyms

skeleton muscle, , musculus skeletalis

General information

Skeletal muscle is a striated form of mucles tissue, responsible for active movement and voluntarily controlled.

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0026464

Larger structures

    Substructures

      Secreted hormones

      • Hormone: humanin

      • Hormone: IL-15

      • Hormone: MCP-2

      • Hormone: hepcidin

      • Hormone: BMP2

      • Hormone: MIP-1 delta

      • Hormone: neuregulin 1 isoform GGF2

      • Hormone: HCC-1

      • Hormone: MPIF-1

      • Hormone: leptin

        • A low level of leptin may be produced in gastric epithelium, placenta and skeletal muscle. [1]
      • Hormone: resistin

      • Hormone: galectin-1

      • Hormone: Dkk2

      • Hormone: Dkk2

      • Hormone: sFRP-2

      • Hormone: sFRP-3

      • Hormone: laminin alpha-5 chain

      • Hormone: TNFSF12

      • Hormone: semaphorin 3C

      • Hormone: cardiotrophin 1

      • Hormone: fractalkine

      • Hormone: galectin-1

      • Hormone: SEMA4D

      • Hormone: GDF-8

      • Hormone: IL-17D

      • Hormone: CYR61

      • Hormone: laminin alpha-2 chain

      • Hormone: PD-L1

      • Hormone: ECM1a

      • Hormone: SMOC-1 isoform 1

      • Hormone: vasorin

      • Hormone: FAM3A

      • Hormone: VEGFB

      • Hormone: FGF-23

      Receptors

      • Receptor: GL-R

        Induced phenotype:

        • maintaining glucose homeostasis
      • Receptor: PLXND1

      • Receptor: insulin receptor

      • Receptor: galanin receptor 3

      • Receptor: glucocorticoid receptor

      • Receptor: GR-beta

      • Receptor: PPARgamma1

        • PPARγ1 had the broadest tissue expression(...)PPARγ1 mRNA was found in the heart, large and small intestines, colon, kidney, pancreas, spleen and skeletal muscle. [2]
        • mRNA being detectable in spleen, bone marrow, liver, testis, skeletal muscle and brain [3]

        Induced phenotype:

        • regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism
          • Co-activation of PPAR gamma and RXR results in additive or synergistic effects on glucose and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle. [4]
        • regulation of glucose metabolic process
          • PPAR-gamma directly coordinates glucoregulatory responses in skeletal muscle. [5]
      • Receptor: EP1

      • Receptor: leptin receptor

        Induced phenotype:

        • positive regulation of fatty acid oxidation
          • Leptin promotes fatty acid (FA) oxidation in skeletal muscle through activation of AMP-activated protein kinase which, in turn, phosphorylates and inhibits acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, leading to reduced malonyl-coenzyme A and increased FA flux into the mitochondria via carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1. [6]
      • Receptor: thrombospondin receptor

        Induced phenotype:

        • lipid homeostasis
          • Transgenic mice that overexpresses Cd36 in heart and skeletal muscle showed reduction in blood triglycerides and non-esterified fatty acids establishing a physiological role for Cd36 in whole-body lipid homeostasis. [7]
      • Receptor: integrin beta-1

      • Receptor: BMP receptor type 1A

      • Receptor: B-CAM

      • Receptor: frizzled 9

      • Receptor: frizzled 10

      • Receptor: frizzled 2

      • Receptor: frizzled 8

      • Receptor: PTC1

      • Receptor: neuropilin 1

      • Receptor: PLXNA2

      • Receptor: LTB4-R1

      • Receptor: IL-10R-alpha

      • Receptor: PPAR-alpha

      • Receptor: vasorin

      • Receptor: glypican 1

      • Receptor: CRF-R1

      • Receptor: CRF-R2

      • Receptor: IL-28R-alpha-v2

      • Receptor: IL-28R-alpha-v1

      • Receptor: CHRNA1-2

      • Receptor: CHRNA1-1

      • Receptor: PRLR

      • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1

      • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 4

      • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1

      • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 3

      • Receptor: growth hormone receptor

        Induced phenotype:

        • Laron syndrome
          • In the majority of GHI patients, a genetic defect in the GH receptor gene leading to a functionless receptor is present. [8]
      • Receptor: AR

        • Isoform 2 is mainly expressed in heart and skeletal muscle. [9]
      • Receptor: VLDLR

        Induced phenotype:

        • transport of fatty acids
          • VLDLR functions as a receptor for very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). In the rabbit its mRNA is expressed mainly in cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, all of which tissues utilize fatty acids as a source of energy. [10]
      • Receptor: PPAR beta/delta

        • A study with human tissues showed that PPARä was present in liver, intestine, kidney, abdominal adipose, and skeletal muscle, tissues that are all involved in aspects of lipid metabolism [2]
      • Receptor: MUSK

        • As indicated by its name, MuSK is a muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase that does not express in other tissues in mammals. [11]

        Induced phenotype:

        • formation of neuromuscular junction
          • MuSK is a receptor tyrosine kinase essential for neuromuscular junction formation. [11]
      Reference