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Details for anatomical structure: skin

EndoNet ID: ENC00125

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Synonyms

skin, , Kutis

General information

The membranous protective covering of the body, consisting of the epidermis and corium

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0040200

Larger structures

    Substructures

      Secreted hormones

      • Hormone: MIG

      • Hormone: IL-13

      • Hormone: CCL27

      • Hormone: CCL28

      • Hormone: AGRP

      • Hormone: MCH

      • Hormone: osteonectin

      • Hormone: fibromodulin

      • Hormone: thrombospondin 1

      • Hormone: CST6

      • Hormone: galectin-1

      • Hormone: laminin gamma-3 chain

      • Hormone: laminin gamma-2 chain

      • Hormone: CTGF

      • Hormone: CYR61

      • Hormone: SLURP-1

      • Hormone: laminin beta-3 chain

      • Hormone: galectin-7

      • Hormone: ECM1a

      • Hormone: ECM1b

      • Hormone: FGF-2

      • Hormone: VCAM1 soluble form

      • Hormone: Granulin-1

      • Hormone: FGF-23

      Receptors

      • Receptor: CRF-R1

      • Receptor: MC1R

        Influences:

        • MSH
      • Receptor: laminin receptor

      • Receptor: BMP receptor type II

      • Receptor: EDAR

        Induced phenotype:

        • ectodermal dyplasia
          • Mutations in EDAR cause ectodermal dysplasias characterized by defective development of exocrine glands, hairs and teeth due to impaired NF-KB signaling. [1]
      • Receptor: FGF-BP

      • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 6

      • Receptor: PRLR

        Induced phenotype:

        • stimulation of keratinocyte growth
          • PRL stimulates keratinocyte growth in mammals. [2]
        • positive regulation of steroid biosynthetic process
          • In the skin, Prolactin increases the expression of type IV 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. [3]
        • cystic fibrosis
          • Prolactin has been suggested to be involved in the etiology of cystic fibrosis. [4]
          • Cystic fibrosis may involve defective prolactin production leading to failure of regulation of Cl channels in affected epithelia. [4]
        • positive regulation of cell proliferation
          • Prolactin stimulates skin melanocyte growth in mammals. [5]
      • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 5

      • Receptor: Interleukin-22 receptor subunit alpha-1

        • issues that gave positive signals included placenta, skin, inflamed appendix, lung, gastrointestinal tract, lymph node, thymus, and spleen [6]
      • Receptor: PPAR beta/delta

        • Of the three isotypes, PPAR/ has the broadest expression pattern, and the levels of expression in certain tissues depend on the extent of cell proliferation and differentiation. Important functions have been assigned to this isotype in the skin, gut, placenta, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and brain [7]
      Reference