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Details for anatomical structure: retina

EndoNet ID: ENC00164

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retina, , Retina

General information

The sensory membrane that lines most of the large posterior chamber of the vertebrate eye, it is composed of several layers including one containing the rods and cones, and functions as the immediate instrument of vision by receiving the image formed by the lens and converting it into chemical and nervous signals which reach the brain by way of the optic nerve; it consists of three parts: optic part , ciliary part, and iridial part

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0007631

Larger structures


      Secreted hormones

      • Hormone: sFRP-5

      • Hormone: RFRP-2

      • Hormone: laminin alpha-5 chain

      • Hormone: norrin

      • Hormone: RFRP-1

      • Hormone: QRFP

      • Hormone: VCAM1 soluble form

      • Hormone: slit-2 isoform 1 N-product

      • Hormone: slit-2 isoform 1 C-product

      • Hormone: VEGF-165

        Influenced by:

        • Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2
          in continuous_vascular_endothelial_cell_of_blood_vessels_and_lymphatics
      • Hormone: ventroptin

        • Ventroptin, an antagonist of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) is mainly expressed in the ventral retina. [1]


      • Receptor: dopamine receptor D2

      • Receptor: THRB1

        • THRB expression pattern is more restricted, and is developmentally regulated. Its main expression sites are the liver, pituitary, inner ear, retina and several brain areas. [2]
      • Receptor: PPARgamma1

        • PPARγ has been shown to be expressed in the RPE(retinal pigmented epithelium), and phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments increases PPARγ expression in these cells. [3]
      • Receptor: melatonin 1 receptor

      • Receptor: melatonin receptor type 1B

      • Receptor: basigin

      • Receptor: EAAT5

      • Receptor: PLXNB1

      • Receptor: PRLR