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Details for anatomical structure: alpha cell of islet of Langerhans

EndoNet ID: ENC00180

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Synonyms

alpha cell of islet of Langerhans, , Endocrinocytus alpha

General information

secreting glucagon; glucagon is raising the blood sugar level and is a catecholamine agonist

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0011209

Larger structures

    Substructures

      Secreted hormones

      • Hormone: ghrelin

        • Ghrelin is present in pancreatic alpha-cells of humans and rats and stimulates insulin secretion. [1]
      • Hormone: glucagon

        • Amylin suppresses glucagon secretion from the alpha cells in the postprandial state. [2]
        • The pancreatic alpha-cell is under the tonic inhibitory control of GLP-1 thereby suppressing postprandial glucagon. [3]

        Influenced by:

        • sst2
          in alpha_cell_of_islet_of_Langerhans
          • Subtype-selective SSTR expression in islet cells could be the basis of glucagon inhibition by SSTR2-selective compounds. [4]
        • sst3
          in alpha_cell_of_islet_of_Langerhans
        • sst5
          in alpha_cell_of_islet_of_Langerhans
        • insulin receptor
          in alpha_cell_of_islet_of_Langerhans
        • CCK-2
          in alpha_cell_of_islet_of_Langerhans
          • The CCK-B/G receptor agonists gastrin and cholecystokinin stimulated the release of glucagon in a dose-dependent manner. [5]
        • GLP-1R
          in alpha_cell_of_islet_of_Langerhans
          • This is supported by the observation that GLP-1 also inhibits glucagon release from a glucagon-secreting cell line [6]
      • Hormone: CRH

        • Co-localization of CRH, GIP, PP and CCK in A-cells was determined by immunocytochemistry. S.456 [7]
      • Hormone: GIP

      • Hormone: pancreatic polypeptide

      • Hormone: cholecystokinin

      • Hormone: glicentin-related polypeptide

      Receptors

      • Receptor: sst2

        Influences:

        • glucagon
          • Subtype-selective SSTR expression in islet cells could be the basis of glucagon inhibition by SSTR2-selective compounds. [4]
      • Receptor: sst1

      • Receptor: sst5

        Influences:

        • glucagon
      • Receptor: sst3

        Influences:

        • glucagon
      • Receptor: insulin receptor

        Influences:

        • glucagon
      • Receptor: GLP-1R

        • The effects of GLP-1 or exenatide on glucagon levels during stepped hyperglycaemic and hypoglycaemic clamps provided the first information about GLP-1 receptor activation and alpha cell glucose sensing in human subjects. [6]

        Influences:

        • glucagon
          • This is supported by the observation that GLP-1 also inhibits glucagon release from a glucagon-secreting cell line [6]
      • Receptor: CCK-2

        Influences:

        • glucagon
          • The CCK-B/G receptor agonists gastrin and cholecystokinin stimulated the release of glucagon in a dose-dependent manner. [5]
      Reference