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Details for anatomical structure: colon

EndoNet ID: ENC00184

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colon, , Colon

General information

The principal part of the large intestine extending from the cecum to the rectum

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0019927

Larger structures


      Secreted hormones

      • Hormone: lipocalin 2

        • Induction of NGAL synthesis in epithelial cells of human colorectal neoplasia and inflammatory bowel diseases. [1]
      • Hormone: GROalpha

      • Hormone: PlGF-1

        • While the three forms are present in most placental tissues, only PlGF-1 is found in the colon and mammary carcinomas. [2]
      • Hormone: lymphotactin

      • Hormone: IL-15

      • Hormone: MCP-2

      • Hormone: MIP-3 beta

      • Hormone: BMP2

      • Hormone: IL-1F8

      • Hormone: MIP-3 alpha

      • Hormone: TARC

      • Hormone: MCP-4

      • Hormone: CCL28

      • Hormone: neuromedin B

      • Hormone: SFRP1

      • Hormone: sFRP-2

      • Hormone: gremlin-1

      • Hormone: semaphorin 3C

      • Hormone: cardiotrophin 1

      • Hormone: QRFP

      • Hormone: fractalkine

      • Hormone: GDF-8

      • Hormone: IHH

      • Hormone: GRP

      • Hormone: RELMbeta

      • Hormone: AGR2

      • Hormone: mucin-2

      • Hormone: EGF

      • Hormone: insulin-like peptide INSL5

      • Hormone: FAM3B-b

      • Hormone: PYY (1-36)


      • Receptor: CaSR

        Induced phenotype:

        • colonocyte differentiation
          • The CaSR plays an important role in the proliferation and differentiation of colonocytes. [3]
          • The CaSR promotes the expression of E-cadherin and suppresses the activation of ß-catenin/ TCF factor, therby regulating the differentiation of colonic epithelial cells. [4]
      • Receptor: glucocorticoid receptor

      • Receptor: PPARgamma1

        • PPARγ1 had the broadest tissue expression(...)PPARγ1 mRNA was found in the heart, large and small intestines, colon, kidney, pancreas, spleen and skeletal muscle. [5]
      • Receptor: histamine H4 receptor

      • Receptor: neurotensin receptor type 1

      • Receptor: PGF2-alpha receptor

      • Receptor: PPAR-gamma1

      • Receptor: laminin receptor

      • Receptor: glucagon-like peptide 2 receptor

      • Receptor: frizzled 2

      • Receptor: NPY4-R

      • Receptor: PLXND1

      • Receptor: CysLTR1

      • Receptor: apelin receptor

      • Receptor: GRP-R

        Induced phenotype:

        • regulation of epithelial cell proliferation
          • Bombesin causes a significant growth in both the atrophic gut mucosa of rats fed an elemental diet and the injured mucosa of rats. This suggests a possible protective role for bombesin in the maintenance of gut mucosal structure after an injury that results in either atrophy or mucosal disruption. [6]
          • In adult rats, bombesin stimulates the proliferation of the colon. [7]
      • Receptor: hepatocyte growth factor receptor

      • Receptor: IL-18R1

      • Receptor: PXR

      • Receptor: TNFRSF25

        • Very low level expression was seen on the colon cancer cell line HT-29. [8]
        • A transcript of 3.2 kb was detected in lymphocyte-rich tissues such as the colon. [9]

        Induced phenotype:

        • positive regulation of lymphocyte apoptosis
          • TNFRSF25 is up-regulated by alternative splicing in response to lymphocyte activation, this means that it is ideally placed to play a role in controlling lymphocyte proliferation. [8]
          • The restricted expression of TNFRSF25 suggests that like Fas receptor it may play a role in immune development and function. [8]
          • TNFRSF25 was detected in lymphocyte-rich tissues such as the thymus, colon, intestine, and spleen. [9]
      • Receptor: MRC2

      • Receptor: PRLR

        Induced phenotype:

        • colorectal cancer
          • Prolactin is thought to increase colorectal tumor agressivity. [10]
      • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1

      • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 5

      • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 4

      • Receptor: CCK-1

        Induced phenotype:

        • induction of smooth muscle contraction
          • In the human colon, the CCK-induced contraction of the smooth muscle is mediated through the CCK1 receptor. [11]
      • Receptor: CCK-2

        Induced phenotype:

        • induction of smooth muscle contraction
          • The CCK2 receptors mediate an inhibitory effect on human colonic smooth muscle and an inhihitory action of CCK on motor function of human distal colon. [12]