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Details for anatomical structure: hair follicle

EndoNet ID: ENC00210

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Synonyms

hair follicle, , Folliculus pili

General information

A tube-like invagination of the epidermis from which the hair shaft develops and into which the sebaceous glands open; the follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0049211

Larger structures

    Substructures

      Secreted hormones

      • Hormone: SHH

      • Hormone: ectodysplasin-A

      • Hormone: CST6

      • Hormone: cortisol

        Influenced by:

        • CRF-R1
          in hair_follicle
          • Isolated human hair follicles secrete substantial levels of cortisol and this activity is further up-regulated by CRH. [1]
      • Hormone: CRH

      • Hormone: ACTH

      • Hormone: alpha-MSH

      Receptors

      • Receptor: ER-alpha

        Induced phenotype:

        • hair growth
          • Estrogens appear to stimulate hair growth in man, via prolonging the anagen phase of scalp hair growth by increasing cell proliferation rates and postponing their transition to the telogen phase. [2]
          • In the murine hair cycle ER alpha expression is maximal in tthe telogen follice. [3]
      • Receptor: PR B

      • Receptor: progesterone receptor A

      • Receptor: ER-beta

        Induced phenotype:

        • hair growth
          • ER beta is strongly expressed in human scalp anagen hair follicles. [4]
          • Estrogens appear to stimulate hair growth in man, via prolonging the anagen phase of scalp hair growth by increasing cell proliferation rates and postponing their transition to the telogen phase.
      • Receptor: AR

        Induced phenotype:

        • hair growth
          • Androgens have strong effects on hair growth and appear to act through the AR on dermal papilla cells. [2]
        • alopecia
          • Single nucleotide polymorohisms of the AR have been associated with androgenetic alopecia in men. [5]
        • hirsutism
          • Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the AR have been associated with hirsutism in women. [6]
      • Receptor: MC1R

      • Receptor: CRF-R1

        Induced phenotype:

        • hair follicle maturation
          • Corticotropin releasing hormone modulates important functional hair growth parameters in vitro (hair shaft elongation, catagen induction, hair keratinocyte proliferation, melanin production). [1]
        • positive regulation of transcription
          • Microdissected, organ-cultured human scalp hair follicles respond to CRH stimulation by up-regulating proopiomelanocortin (POMC) transcription and immunoreactivity for ACTH and ╬▒-MSH, which must have been processed from POMC. [1]

        Influences:

        • cortisol
          • Isolated human hair follicles secrete substantial levels of cortisol and this activity is further up-regulated by CRH. [1]
      • Receptor: EDAR

        Induced phenotype:

        • hair follicle maturation
          • EDAr regulates the transition from active growth to regression (catagen) during hair follicle maturation. [7]
      • Receptor: FGF-BP

      • Receptor: ACTH receptor

        Induced phenotype:

        • cellular response to cortisol stimulus
          • The strongest stimulus for adrenal cortisol production, ACTH, up-regulates cortisol immunoreactivity in the hair follicles. [1]
      • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 6

        Induced phenotype:

        • autosomal recessive woolly hair
          • P2Y5 was identified as a critical mediator for human hair growth and is a causal gene of a rare familial form of human hair loss. [8]
      • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 3

      • Receptor: PRLR

        Induced phenotype:

        • hair growth
      • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1

      • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 2

      Reference