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Details for anatomical structure: epidermis

EndoNet ID: ENC00213

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Synonyms

epidermis, , Epidermis

General information

The epithelial and superficial part of the skin which is derived from the embryonic epiblast; it consists of several layers of squamous epithelial cells, the outer ones of which are progressively more compressed and/or horny

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0049127

Larger structures

    Substructures

      Secreted hormones

      • Hormone: IL-15

      • Hormone: laminin gamma-2 chain

      • Hormone: laminin beta-3 chain

      Receptors

      • Receptor: ER-alpha

        Induced phenotype:

        • regulation of water loss via skin
          • The positive effects of estrogens on the water content of the skin, that were observed in all patients, may be due to dermal and epidermal components. The estrogen-stimulated increases of acid mucopolysaccharides and of hyaluronic acid contribute to an increase water content in the dermis. The increased epidermal water content may be due to increased epidermal skin thickness with subsequently elevated amounts of a natural moisturizing factor. [1]
        • wound healing
          • ER alpha is expressed in various cell-types and compartments of the penis, including the epidermis of glans penis. [2]
          • Estrogen plays a role in maintaining the glans penis integrity, in part, by facilitating penile healing, possibly via up-regulating levels of VEGF. [3]
      • Receptor: ER-beta

        Induced phenotype:

        • regulation of water loss via skin
          • The positive effects of estrogens on the water content of the skin, that were observed in all patients, may be due to dermal and epidermal components. The estrogen-stimulated increases of acid mucopolysaccharides and of hyaluronic acid contribute to an increase water content in the dermis. The increased epidermal water content may be due to increased epidermal skin thickness with subsequently elevated amounts of a natural moisturizing factor. [1]
        • wound healing
          • ER beta is expressed in various cell-types and compartments of the penis, including the epidermis of glans penis. [2]
          • Estrogen plays a role in maintaining the glans penis integrity, in part, by facilitating penile healing, possibly via up-regulating levels of VEGF. [3]
      • Receptor: PR B

      • Receptor: progesterone receptor A

      • Receptor: AR

        Induced phenotype:

        • negative regulation of epidermal barrier function
          • Androgens stimulates epidermal hyperplasia and suppresses epidermal barrier function in fetal and adult human skin. [4]
        • acne vulgaris
          • Several experimental observations, therapeutic experience as well as clinical observations support the pathogenic role of androgens in acne. In addition to stimulation of sebum production, indirect evidence also suggests the importance of androgens on comedogenesis and inflammation. [5]
      • Receptor: mineralcorticoid receptor

      • Receptor: CRF-R1

      • Receptor: PRLR

      Reference