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Details for anatomical structure: neutrophil granulocyte

EndoNet ID: ENC00217

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Synonyms

neutrophil granulocyte, neutrocyte, neutrophilic leukocyte, polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocyte, Granulocytus neutrophilicus

General information

granulocytic leukocyte with a multilobed nucleus with up to six segments; they contain substances that destroy bacteria (granules), are able to phagocyte and play a key role in the acute inflammatory reaction

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0011309

Larger structures

    Substructures

      Secreted hormones

      • Hormone: neutrophil defensin 4

      • Hormone: neutrophil defensin 3

      • Hormone: neutrophil defensin 1

      • Hormone: defensin alpha 1

      • Hormone: lipocalin 2

        • Besides neutrophils, NGAL is expressed in most tissues normally exposed to microorganisms, and its synthesis is induced in epithelial cells during inflammation. [1]
      • Hormone: ENA-78

      • Hormone: GRObeta

      • Hormone: PAF

      • Hormone: IL-8

        Influenced by:

        • TNFR1
          in neutrophil_granulocyte
          • Early TNF-alpha (accumulating 4 hrs after LTA exposure), considerably stimulated the late phase of IL-8 secretion in an autocrine manner. [2]
        • IL-10R-alpha
          in neutrophil_granulocyte
          • IL-10 blocked the late phase of LTA-mediated neutrophil IL-8 synthesis, whereas the early phase (i.e., 8 hrs after stimulation with LTA) of IL-8 synthesis was insensitive to the anti-inflammatory cytokine. [3]
        • EGFR isoform a
          in neutrophil_granulocyte
          • EGF alone was able to prime CD11b expression and IL-8 production by PMN. [4]
      • Hormone: IL-1 beta

      • Hormone: TNF-alpha

      • Hormone: IL-1RA

        • In LPS-challenged neutrophils, large amounts of soluble TNFRs p55 and p75 (sTNFRI, sTNFRII), and IL-1R antagonist (IL-1RA), rising constantly with the cell density, were detected. [3]
      • Hormone: HBP

      • Hormone: cathelicidin

      • Hormone: soluble PSGL-1

      • Hormone: proteinase 3

      • Hormone: elastase-2

      • Hormone: elafin

      • Hormone: 20-hydroxy LTB4

      • Hormone: Syntaxin-4

        • Expressed in neutrophils and neutrophil-differentiated HL-60 cells. Expression in neutrophils increases with differentiation.

      Receptors

      • Receptor: leukosialin

      • Receptor: glucocorticoid receptor

      • Receptor: GR-beta

      • Receptor: H1

      • Receptor: H2

      • Receptor: histamine H4 receptor

      • Receptor: CXCR1

      • Receptor: IL-8R B

      • Receptor: CEACAM-1 isoform B

      • Receptor: CEACAM-1 isoform C

      • Receptor: biliary glycoprotein 1

        Influences:

        • interleukin 6
          • Evidence in mice suggests that biliary glycoprotein activation on murine dendritic cells causes IL-6 and IL-12 release. [5]
        • IL-12
          • 451 Evidence in mice suggests that biliary glycoprotein activation on murine dendritic cells causes IL-6 and IL-12 release. 1410 [5]
      • Receptor: CEACAM-6

      • Receptor: IL-10R-alpha

        Influences:

        • IL-8
          • IL-10 blocked the late phase of LTA-mediated neutrophil IL-8 synthesis, whereas the early phase (i.e., 8 hrs after stimulation with LTA) of IL-8 synthesis was insensitive to the anti-inflammatory cytokine. [3]
      • Receptor: CD14

      • Receptor: TLR2

      • Receptor: TLR4

      • Receptor: TLR9

      • Receptor: EGFR isoform a

        Influences:

        • IL-8
          • EGF alone was able to prime CD11b expression and IL-8 production by PMN. [4]
      • Receptor: TNFR1

        Influences:

        • IL-8
          • Early TNF-alpha (accumulating 4 hrs after LTA exposure), considerably stimulated the late phase of IL-8 secretion in an autocrine manner. [2]
      • Receptor: TNFR2

      • Receptor: CCR3

      • Receptor: CEACAM-1 isoform A

      • Receptor: PSGL-1

      • Receptor: ADAM17

        Induced phenotype:

        • ectodomain shedding
          • ADAM17 deficient neutrophils failed to shed L-selectin in response to PMA. [6]
      • Receptor: SIGLEC-7

      • Receptor: ROBO1

      • Receptor: FPRL1

      • Receptor: oxoeicosanoid receptor 1

      • Receptor: parathyroid hormone 2 receptor

        • PTH2 receptor is expressed on human granulocytes and--to a lesser degree--on monocytes and lymphocytes [7]
      • Receptor: bradykinin receptor B1

        Induced phenotype:

        • Neutrophil chemotaxis
      • Receptor: CCR6

        • Cytokine-activated PMNLs (polymorphonuclear leukocytes) expressed functional CCR6. [8]

        Induced phenotype:

        • Neutrophil chemotaxis
          • hBD-2 induces the chemotaxis of TNF-α-pretreated neutrophils. [9]
          • Our results suggest that hBD-2 and MIP-3α share CCR6 as their main receptor on neutrophils; however, neutrophils may possess an additional receptor(s) for hBD-2. [9]
      • Receptor: G-CSF-R

        • The G-CSFR is expressed by all neutrophils and their precursors. [10]

        Induced phenotype:

        • regulation of neutrophil production
          • G-CSF plays a role in neutrophil production via its receptor G-CSFR. [10]
      Reference