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Details for anatomical structure: epithelial cell

EndoNet ID: ENC00244

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Synonyms

epithelial cell, cell of epithelium,

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0044695

Larger structures

    Substructures

      Secreted hormones

      • Hormone: lipocalin 2

        • NGAL expressed in granulocytes and epithelial cells in pathological conditions, such as inflammation and malignancy. [1]
      • Hormone: alpha-AGP

        • AGP, a highly glycosylated polypeptide chain, is expressed in human liver and in other cells, including human breast epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and cultured human granulocytes and monocytes. [2]
      • Hormone: laminin gamma-3 chain

      • Hormone: IL-11

        • IL-11 is produced by a variety of stromal cells including fibroblasts, epithelial cells and osteoblasts. [3]
      • Hormone: ICAM-1

      • Hormone: IL-18

      • Hormone: GROalpha

      • Hormone: ENA-78

      • Hormone: IL-7

      • Hormone: PDGFD

      • Hormone: IL-15

      • Hormone: sVEGFR-2

        • Skin epithelium is also a source of circulating sVegfr-2. [4]
      • Hormone: CTGF

      • Hormone: laminin gamma-2 chain

      • Hormone: AGR2

      • Hormone: uteroglobin

      • Hormone: laminin alpha-5 chain

      • Hormone: laminin beta-3 chain

      • Hormone: IL-32

      • Hormone: HB-EGF

        Influenced by:

        • PAF-R
          in epithelial_cell
          • PAFR transduces the signal to EGFR via ADAM10-dependent proteolysis of transmembrane HB-EGF. [5]
      • Hormone: PGE2

        • The invasion of epithelial cells in vitro by C. parvum results in the rapid expression of anti-microbial peptides (e.g., beta-defensins) and the inflammatory chemokines including IL-8, TNF-alpha, and prostaglandin E2, etc. [6]
      • Hormone: TNF-alpha

      • Hormone: BD-2

        • Infection of human epithelial cells with mycobacteria induces HBD-2 mRNA expression in vitro. [7]
      • Hormone: BD-1

      • Hormone: galectin-7

      • Hormone: EGF

      • Hormone: osteopontin

      • Hormone: IL-1F9-1

      • Hormone: Granulin-1

      Receptors

      • Receptor: H1

      • Receptor: H2

      • Receptor: PPAR-gamma1

      • Receptor: glucagon-like peptide 2 receptor

      • Receptor: hepatocyte growth factor receptor

        Induced phenotype:

        • branching morphogenesis
          • CD100/Sema4D, as well as scatter factor, triggers invasive growth - this phenomenon is a complex program including branching morphogenesis, in which cells acquire polarity and form tubules arranged like branches of a tree. [8]
        • positive regulation of cell growth
          • CD100/Sema4D, as well as scatter factor, triggers invasive growth - this phenomenon is a complex program including cell-cell-dissociation and anchorage-independent growth. [8]
      • Receptor: EGFR isoform a

      • Receptor: PAF-R

        Influences:

        • HB-EGF
          • PAFR transduces the signal to EGFR via ADAM10-dependent proteolysis of transmembrane HB-EGF. [5]
      • Receptor: TLR4

      • Receptor: IL-1RI

      • Receptor: integrin alpha-5/beta-1

      • Receptor: CaSR

      • Receptor: IL-15R alpha

      • Receptor: TrpV4-A

        Induced phenotype:

        • negative regulation of cell volume
          • TRPV4 channel is the only pathway mediating the swelling-activated Ca2+ entry required to achieve a full RVD in human tracheal epithelial cells. [9]
          • Human airway epithelia show a typical Ca2+-dependent cell regularoty volume decrease (RVD) under hypotonic conditions. [10]
          • Impaired RVD response in Cystic Fibrosis airway epithelia is caused by a misregulation of TRPV4, suggesting that hypotonic activation of TRPV4 channels is cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-dependent. [9]
      • Receptor: TNFR1

      • Receptor: melanocortin receptor 5

      • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1

      • Receptor: mineralcorticoid receptor

        Induced phenotype:

        • multicellular organismal water homeostasis
          • The classical effects of MR signalling are in epithelial tissues where activation promotes sodium reabsorption and potassium secretion, and is therefore crucial for salt and water retention. [11]
      • Receptor: Interleukin-22 receptor subunit alpha-1

        • issues that gave positive signals included placenta, skin, inflamed appendix, lung, gastrointestinal tract, lymph node, thymus, and spleen [12]
      Reference