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Details for anatomical structure: lymphocyte

EndoNet ID: ENC00276

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lymphocyte, lymphoid cell, lympholeukocyte, Lymphocytus

General information

mononuclear leukocyte; main function is the defense of pathogens und destruction of normal cells; differentiation between B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes (there are 85% T-cells in normal blood); age ranges from a few days to many years

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0011493

Larger structures


      Secreted hormones

      • Hormone: TNF-beta

        • Tumour necrosis factors, TNF-alpha and TNF-beta (previously called lymphotoxin), are the products of activated monocytes and lymphocytes. [1]
      • Hormone: IL-13

        • IL-13 is a pleiotropic cytokine produced in large quantities by activated CD4(+) Th2 lymphocytes. [2]
      • Hormone: IL-7

      • Hormone: CLC

      • Hormone: IL-2

      • Hormone: MIP-1 alpha

      • Hormone: MIP-1 beta

      • Hormone: soluble P-selectin

      • Hormone: soluble PSGL-1

      • Hormone: FGF-3

        Influenced by:

        • ESL-1
          in lymphocyte


      • Receptor: L-selectin

        • The constitutive expression of L-selectin by naive lymphocytes ans peripheral node adhesins by high endothelial venules within peripheral lymph nodes mediates the continuous recirculation of lymphocytes between blood and lymph. [3]

        Induced phenotype:

        • lymphocyte migration into lymph node
          • dominant role of L-selectin in mediating lymphocyte migration to the peripheral lymph node [3]
          • L-selectin also supports lymphocyte migration to the mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches [3]
          • optimal wound healing was found to require the cooperative interactions of all three selectins and ICAM-1 [3]
        • wound healing
          • optimal wound healing was found to require the cooperative interactions of all three selectins and ICAM-1 [3]
      • Receptor: beta-2 adrenoreceptor

      • Receptor: IgE Fc receptor gamma-subunit

      • Receptor: PSGL-1

      • Receptor: CD6

      • Receptor: complement C3d receptor

      • Receptor: TNFRSF25

        • TNFRSF25 is expressed in roughly equal amounts in B cells and CD4+ or CD8+ T cells, it is not expressed in macrophages. [4]

        Induced phenotype:

        • positive regulation of lymphocyte apoptosis
          • The potential importance of TNFRSF25 in lymphocyte apoptosis is reflected by its restricted pattern of expression, predominantly on lymphocytes. [4]
      • Receptor: ESL-1


        • FGF-3
      • Receptor: PRLR

        Induced phenotype:

        • positive regulation of immunoglobulin production
          • In lymphocytes, PRL is known to increase antibody formation, including IgG and IgM antibodies. [5]
        • positive regulation of lymphocyte proliferation
          • In lymphocytes, PRL is known to induce cellular proliferation. [6]
        • interleukin-2 receptor complex
          • Prolactin has to been reported to increase receptor levels for interleukin-2. [7]
        • erythropoietin receptor activity
          • Prolactin has been reported to increase receptor levels for erythropoietin. [8]
        • prolactin receptor activity
          • Prolactin has been reported to increase receptor levels for prolactin. [9]
        • negative regulation of lymphocyte apoptosis
          • In addition to stimulating proliferation, PRL has been shown to inhibit apoptosis of lymphocytes. [10]
        • activation of malignant B cells
          • Prolactin is thought to activate malignant B lymphocytes. [11]
          • Prolactin has a role in the growth of some cancers of lymphoid origin in rats. [12]
        • regulation of immune system process
          • Administration of PRL is associated with increased graft rejection. [13]
      • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 4

        Induced phenotype:

        • regulation of leukocyte migration
          • S1PR4 is the receptor for the lysosphingolipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). S1P is a bioactive lysophospholipid that elicits diverse physiological effect on most types of cells and tissues. May be involved in cell migration processes that are specific for lymphocytes. [14]
      • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 5

        Induced phenotype:

        • LGL leukemia
          • Human sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 5 gene (S1P5) is overexpressed in large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia. [15]
          • LGL is a lymphopropliferative disorder often associated with autoimmune disease. [15]
      • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1

        Induced phenotype:

        • regulation of lymphocyte proliferation
          • The downregulation of S1PR1 expression that occurs after TCR activation seems to contribute to the retention and proliferation of antigen-bearing cells in the lymph nodes. [16]
        • regulation of leukocyte migration
          • Lymphocytes that lack S1PR1 expression cannot egress from lymph nodes and thymus, and lymphocytes with decreased receptor expression levels have a corresponding decreased rate of egress. [16]
      • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 2

        Induced phenotype:

        • regulation of immune response
          • LPA receptor 2 is widely expressed in the adult mouse and might be involved in the control of lymphocyte function. [17]
      • Receptor: Probable G-protein coupled receptor 132

        Induced phenotype:

        • regulation of actin cytoskeleton organization
          • G2A may relay signals regulating APC migration between tissue and lymph in response to LPC produced at inflammatory sites through its effects on actin cytoskeleton reorganization. [18]
        • lymphocyte homeostasis
          • Old G2A-deficient mice (older than 1 year) develop a late-onset autoimmune syndrome, indicating that G2A plays a role in the control of lymphocyte homeostasis. [19]
      • Receptor: parathyroid hormone 2 receptor

        • PTH2 receptor is expressed on human granulocytes and--to a lesser degree--on monocytes and lymphocytes [20]