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Details for anatomical structure: astrocyte

EndoNet ID: ENC00284

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astrocyte, spider cell, stellate cell, Astrocytus

General information

macroglia; glial cell of the central nervous system; builds the blood-brain barrier with its procceses; makes the exchange, transport and distribution of molecules possible

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0011358

Larger structures


      Secreted hormones

      • Hormone: RANTES

        • RANTES promotes growth and survival of human first-trimester forebrain astrocytes. [1]
      • Hormone: ADNF

      • Hormone: CXCL11

      • Hormone: NPY

      • Hormone: metallothionein 3

        • The hypothetical model describes the process of secretion of MT-3, from the astrocytes into the extracellular milieu, through its interaction with Rab3A, 14-3-3 zeta, Exo84p. [2]
      • Hormone: APOD

      • Hormone: laminin-5

      • Hormone: thrombospondin 1

      • Hormone: gremlin-1

      • Hormone: Cystatin-C

      • Hormone: ADNP

        • Furthermore, ADNP-like immunoreactivity was identified in conditioned media from astrocytes, and the concentration increased after treatment with VIP. [3]
      • Hormone: erythropoietin

      • Hormone: FGF-1 isoform 1

      • Hormone: FGF-2

      • Hormone: GFAP


      • Receptor: apelin receptor

      • Receptor: complement receptor 3

      • Receptor: GRP-R

      • Receptor: CaSR

        Induced phenotype:

        • astrocyte differentiation
          • CaSR regulates the differentiation of astrocyte by stimulating the release of parathyroid hormone-related prootein (PTHrP). [4]
      • Receptor: ADAM17

      • Receptor: complement C3d receptor

      • Receptor: GLAST

        Induced phenotype:

        • excitotoxcicity
          • The glutamate receptor GLAST maintains low synaptic glutamate levels to terminate glutamate signaling and prevent pathologic excitotoxicity. [5]
      • Receptor: GLT1

        Induced phenotype:

        • termination of excitatory nerve signals
          • The astrocyte glutamate transporter GLT1 is responsible for significant portions of glutamate transport from the synaptic cleft, therby regulating synaptic transmission and preventing exitotoxicity. [6]
        • motor neuron loss
          • The glutamate transporter GLT1 triggers motor neuron loss in mutant SOD1-mediated diseases, pointing at the fact that GLT1 plays a role in disease propagation rather than initiation. [6]
      • Receptor: PRLR

        Induced phenotype:

        • regulation of cell proliferation
          • Prolactin induces the proliferation of astrocytes. [7]
      • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1

        Induced phenotype:

        • astrocyte development
          • A study using LPA1-null astrocytes clearly identified the involvement of this receptor in LPA-mediated astrocyte proliferation. [8]
          • Astrocytes primed by LPA increase neuronal differentiation, likely through as yet unidentified soluble factors, and this activity is dependent on activation of LPA1 and in astrocytes. [9]
      • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 2

        Induced phenotype:

        • astrocyte differentiation
          • Astrocytes primed by LPA increase neuronal differentiation, likely through as yet unidentified soluble factors, and this activity is dependent on activation of LPA2 in astrocytes. [9]
      • Receptor: CX3CR1

      • Receptor: Syndecan-4

        • Syndecan 4 is expressed exclusively by astroglia. [10]