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Details for anatomical structure: helper T cell Th1

EndoNet ID: ENC00288

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Synonyms

helper T cell Th1, inducer T cell, helper cell (Th 1), Lymphocytus (Th 1)

General information

CD4-expressing T-lymphocyte; stimulates the production of antibodies by activating memory cells; also activates macrophages

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0011314

Larger structures

    Substructures

      Secreted hormones

      • Hormone: IFN-gamma

        • Th1 cells mainly produce interferon-gamma, while Th2 cells selectively secrete IL-4 and IL-5. [1]

        Influenced by:

        • IL-18R
          in helper_T_cell_Th1
          • IL-18 is originally called interferon gamma inducing factor, due to its capacity to induce interferon gamma production in Th1 type cells. [2]
      • Hormone: IL-2

        • T-helper cells (Th1) produce interleukin (IL) -2 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). [3]

        Influenced by:

        • CD28
          in helper_T_cell_Th1
          • CD28 is the primary co-stimulatory receptor for inducing high-level IL-2 production and survival of naive CD4(+) T cells. [4]
      • Hormone: IL-4

        • IL-4-secreting CD4+ T cells are crucial to the development of CD8+ T-cell responses against malaria liver stages. [5]

      Receptors

      • Receptor: CCR4

      • Receptor: CD28

        Influences:

        • IL-2
          • CD28 is the primary co-stimulatory receptor for inducing high-level IL-2 production and survival of naive CD4(+) T cells. [4]
      • Receptor: IL-18R1

      • Receptor: IL-12beta2R

      • Receptor: IL-18Rbeta

      • Receptor: IL-18R

        Influences:

        • IFN-gamma
          • IL-18 is originally called interferon gamma inducing factor, due to its capacity to induce interferon gamma production in Th1 type cells. [2]
      • Receptor: VPAC2

        • Stimulation through the T cell receptors-associated CD3 complex induces the expression of the VPAC2-R mRNA in T-lymphocytes. [6]

        Induced phenotype:

        • cell maturation
          • In CD4+CD8+thymocytes, PACAP prevents glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis by inhibiting Fas ligand expression, suggesting a possible implication in intrathymic T-cell maturation. [7]
      Reference