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Details for anatomical structure: neuron

EndoNet ID: ENC00360

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Synonyms

neuron, nerve cell, neurocyte, neurone, Neuron

General information

huge variety of types; still poorly classified

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0045836

Larger structures

    Substructures

      Secreted hormones

      • Hormone: gremlin-2

      • Hormone: gremlin-1

      • Hormone: semaphorin 3F

      • Hormone: angiogenin

        • Our studies indicate that angiogenin is a neuronally derived protein which constitutively and inducibly modifies the RNA profile of astroglia in paracrine. [1]
      • Hormone: galectin-1

      • Hormone: erythropoietin

      • Hormone: FGF-1 isoform 1

      • Hormone: cholecystokinin

      • Hormone: tau

      • Hormone: slit-1

        • SLIT1 expression is neuronal specific. [2]
      • Hormone: anandamide (20:4, n-6)

        • Neuronal synthesis and release of anandamide and 2- arachidonoyl glycerol is also calcium-dependent. [3]
        • AEA is an ethanolamide derivative of AA. Arachidonic acid is derived from membrane lipids by selective activation of Ca2+-dependent PLA2, which releases the Sn-2- arachidonyl moiety from the membrane PL, phosphatidylcholine (PC). [4]
      • Hormone: 2-Arachidonoylglycerol

        • Neuronal synthesis and release of anandamide and 2- arachidonoyl glycerol is also calcium-dependent. [3]
      • Hormone: abeta40

      • Hormone: cathepsin D

      Receptors

      • Receptor: Putative tumor suppressor protein EXTL3

        • Here, we show that Reg-1α co-localizes with EXTL3 at the cell membrane of neuronal cells. [5]

        Induced phenotype:

        • neurite elongation
          • Here, we show that Reg-1α co-localizes with EXTL3 at the cell membrane of neuronal cells, and we demonstrate that the effects of Reg-1α on neurite elongation are mediated at least in part through this receptor. [5]
      • Receptor: neuropilin-2

        • neuropilin-2 whose mRNA is expressed in developing neurons in a pattern largely, though not completely overlapping with that of neuropilin-1 [6]

        Induced phenotype:

        • axon guidance
          • nitially found expressed in neuronal and then later in endothelial cells, it is well established that the transmembrane glycoproteins neuropilin-1 (NRP1) and neuropilin-2 (NRP2) play essential roles in axonal growth and guidance and in physiological and pathological angiogenesis [7]
      • Receptor: complement receptor 3

      • Receptor: CaSR

        Induced phenotype:

        • growth of neuronal processes
          • The CaSR regulates the growth of neuronal processes both in the peripheral and central nervous system and may thus participate in processes underlying learning and memory. [8]
        • regulation of myelination
          • Functional CaSRs are expressed in mature oligodendrocytes pointing to a potential role in myelination. [9]
      • Receptor: CCK-2

      • Receptor: ADAM17

      • Receptor: ALCAM

      • Receptor: galanin receptor 1

        Induced phenotype:

        • neuroregeneration
          • Galanin induces several regulatory functions in neuronal cells, including neuroregeneration. [10]
        • modulation of sensory and behavioral functions
          • Galanin induces several regulatory functions in neuronal cells, including modulation of sensory and behavioral functions. [10]
        • neuronal growth
          • Galanin is implicated in neuronal growth. [11]
        • neuronal development
          • Galanin is implicated in neuronal development. [11]
        • apoptosis of ganglion cells
          • Loss of function of Galanin gene shows enhanced apoptosis of ganglion cells. [12]
        • regulation of exocrine and endocrine secretion
          • Galanin induces several regulatory functions in neuronal cells, including control of endocrine and exocrine secretions. [10]
        • pituitary adenoma
          • Overexpression of Galanin results in development of pituitary adenomas. [11]
      • Receptor: sortilin

        Induced phenotype:

        • migration of microglia
          • NTR3 may control proliferation of human cancer cells, migration of human microglia and proNGF-induced neuronal cell death. [13]
      • Receptor: PLXNB1

      • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 2

        Induced phenotype:

        • regulation of membrane potential
          • S1PR2 (Edg-5) regulates neuronal excitability. [14]
          • Edg-5 plays an essential, unanticipated and functionally important role in the proper development and/or mediation of neuronal excitability. [14]
        • negative regulation of neuron projection development
          • S1PR2 is a cell surface receptor responsible for cell rounding and neurite retraction induced by S1P. [15]
      • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1

        Induced phenotype:

        • negative regulation of neuron projection development
          • Overexpression of LPA1 results in neurite retraction and cell rounding when stimulated with LPA [16]
        • regulation of cell proliferation
          • LPA signaling controls proliferation and differentiation of primary neuroprogenitor cells and neurosphere cultures via LPA1. [17]
      • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 3

        Induced phenotype:

        • neuron projection morphogenesis
          • Overexpression of LPA3 in neuroblastoma cells leads to neurite elongation. [16]
      • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 2

        Induced phenotype:

        • negative regulation of neuron projection development
          • Overexpression of LPA2 results in neurite retraction and cell rounding when stimulated with LPA. [16]
      • Receptor: Syndecan-3

        • Syndecan-3 mRNA is mostly expressed in the nervous system, on neuronal cells. [18]

        Induced phenotype:

        • neurite elongation
          • The binding of PTN with syndecan-3 induces neurite outgrowth of embryonic neurons. [19]
      Reference