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Details for anatomical structure: digestive system

EndoNet ID: ENC00365

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Synonyms

digestive system, alimentary system, alimentary apparatus, Systema digestorium

General information

The digestive tract from the mouth to the anus with all its associated glands and organs; responsible for resorption and excretion of nutritional components

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0014653

Larger structures

    Substructures

      Secreted hormones

      • Hormone: uteroglobin

      • Hormone: endothelin-2

        • Endothelin (ET)-2, an ET family peptide, is highly expressed in intestine. [1]
      • Hormone: EG-VEGF

      • Hormone: humanin

      • Hormone: REG1A

      • Hormone: somatostatin

        Influenced by:

        • CCK-2
          in digestive_system
      • Hormone: GLP-1

        • Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a gut peptide that, together with its receptor, GLP-1R, is expressed in the brain. [2]
      • Hormone: PYY(3-36)

        • It is secreted in the L-cells of the gastrointestinal tract after nutrition uptake [3]

      Receptors

      • Receptor: neuromedin B receptor

        Induced phenotype:

        • induction of smooth muscle contraction
          • NMB and activation of NMB receptors are known to stimulate the contraction of GI smooth muscles. [4]
      • Receptor: hepatocyte growth factor receptor

      • Receptor: PPAR-alpha

        • PPAR╬▒ is expressed at high levels in organs that carry out significant catabolism of fatty acids such as the brown adipose tissue, liver, heart, kidney, and intestine [5]
      • Receptor: EGFR isoform a

      • Receptor: CaSR

      • Receptor: CCK-2

        Influences:

        • somatostatin
      • Receptor: PRLR

        Induced phenotype:

        • increase in size of intestinal mucosa
          • PRL induces an increase in the size of the intestinal mucosa. [6]
        • multicellular organismal water homeostasis
          • increased water and salt absorption in intestine [7]
          • Duodenum: Na+ and Ca2+ [8]
          • Jejunum: Na+, K+, Ca2+ [9]
          • Ileum: Na+, Cl-, K+, Ca2+ [10]
          • Colon: Na+ and Cl- [11]
      • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1

        Induced phenotype:

        • gastrointestinal cancer
          • LPA is implicated in the progression of gastrointestinal cancers. LPA stimulates proliferation, migration, and invasion primarily through the activation of LPA1. [12]
      • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 2

        Induced phenotype:

        • gastrointestinal cancer
          • LPA is implicated in the progression of gastrointestinal cancers. LPA stimulates proliferation, migration, and invasion primarily through the activation of LPA2. [13]
      Reference