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Details for anatomical structure: parathyroid gland

EndoNet ID: ENC00407

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Synonyms

parathyroid gland, epithelial body (right and left), Glandula parathyroidea (dexter et sinister)

General information

Two small paired endocrine glands superior and inferior, usually found embedded in the connective tissue on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland; they secrete parathyroid hormone that regulates the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus; the parenchyma is composed of chief and oxyphilic cells arranged in anastomosing cord

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0038571

Larger structures

    Substructures

      Secreted hormones

      • Hormone: QRFP

      • Hormone: FGF-23

      • Hormone: PTH

        Influenced by:

        • CaSR
          in parathyroid_gland
          • in physiological concentrations, L-amino acids acutely and reversibly activated the extracellular Ca2+-sensing receptor in normal human parathyroid cells and inhibited parathyroid hormone secretion. [1]
          • Parathormone (PTH) secretion from the parathyroid gland is suppressed by high extracellular calcium and magnesium. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is responsible for the calcium-dependent inhibition of PTH secretion. [2]
          • L-amino acids are physiological regulators of PTH secretion and thus whole body calcium metabolism. [1]
          • In the parathyroid gland, the CaSR mediates low extracellular calium-evoked increases in secretion of the extracellular calium-elevating hormone, parathyroid hormone, as well as in parathyroid cellular proliferation..22.9 [3]
        • IL-1RI
          in parathyroid_gland
          • IL-1 beta inhibits PTH secretion, this effect is blocked when (equine) parathyroid cells were incubated with an IL-1 receptor antagonist. [4]
        • IL-6R
          in parathyroid_gland
          • IL-6 decreases PTH secretion. [4]

      Receptors

      • Receptor: CaSR

        Induced phenotype:

        • Familial benign hypocalciuric hypercalcemia
          • FBHH/FHH, transmitted in an autosomal dominant fashion, is due in most, but not all, cases to a heterozygous mutation in the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) gene that is the main regulator of parathyroid cell responsivity to calcium. [5]

        Influences:

        • PTH
          • in physiological concentrations, L-amino acids acutely and reversibly activated the extracellular Ca2+-sensing receptor in normal human parathyroid cells and inhibited parathyroid hormone secretion. [1]
          • Parathormone (PTH) secretion from the parathyroid gland is suppressed by high extracellular calcium and magnesium. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is responsible for the calcium-dependent inhibition of PTH secretion. [2]
          • L-amino acids are physiological regulators of PTH secretion and thus whole body calcium metabolism. [1]
          • In the parathyroid gland, the CaSR mediates low extracellular calium-evoked increases in secretion of the extracellular calium-elevating hormone, parathyroid hormone, as well as in parathyroid cellular proliferation..22.9 [3]
      • Receptor: IL-1RI

        Influences:

        • PTH
          • IL-1 beta inhibits PTH secretion, this effect is blocked when (equine) parathyroid cells were incubated with an IL-1 receptor antagonist. [4]
      • Receptor: IL-6R

        Influences:

        • PTH
          • IL-6 decreases PTH secretion. [4]
      Reference