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Details for anatomical structure: microglial cell in central nervous system

EndoNet ID: ENC00423

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Synonyms

microglial cell in central nervous system, , Macrophagocytus stabilis

General information

Microglia are thought to be the main source of phagocytic cells in the central nervous system

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0011308

Larger structures

    Substructures

      Secreted hormones

      • Hormone: TNF-alpha

        • Microglia produce molecules including NO and TNF-alpha that can be toxic to CNS cells including myelin-producing oligodendrocytes and neurons, which are compromised in the course of MS. [1]
      • Hormone: 2-Arachidonoylglycerol

      Receptors

      • Receptor: ER-beta

        Induced phenotype:

        • regulation of inflammatory response
          • ER beta specific ligands potently inhibit transcriptional activation of inflammatory response genes in microglia and astrocytes. [2]
      • Receptor: PPARgamma1

        • The observation that PPAR-gamma is involved in the regulation of macrophage differentiation and activation in the peripheral organs has prompted the investigation of the functional role of PPAR-gamma in microglial cells, the main macrophage population of the CNS. [3]
      • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1

        Induced phenotype:

        • membrane hyperpolarization
          • Several cellular functions of LPA signaling in microglia have been observed, including cell membrane hyperpolarization. [4]
        • positive regulation of chemokinesis
          • Several cellular functions of LPA signaling in microglia have been observed, including enhanced chemokinesis. [4]
        • membrane ruffling
          • Several cellular functions of LPA signaling in microglia have been observed, including membrane ruffling. [5]
        • positive regulation of cytokine production
          • Several cellular functions of LPA signaling in microglia have been observed, including growth factor upregulation. [4]
        • regulation of glia cell proliferation
          • Several cellular functions of LPA signaling in microglia have been observed, including proliferation. [4]
      • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 3

        Induced phenotype:

        • regulation of inflammatory response
          • It is notable that LPA3 is upregulated in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated microglia, suggesting a role for LPA signaling in activated microglia during neuroinflammation. [6]
      • Receptor: Psychosine receptor

        Induced phenotype:

        • Krabbe disease
          • The secondary accumulation of Psy in microglia probably induces the formation of globoid cells. [7]
      • Receptor: mineralcorticoid receptor

        Induced phenotype:

        • positive regulation of immune response
          • Corticosterone exerts its immunostimulatory effects via both corticosteroid receptors in a concentration dependent manner in microglial cells. [8]
      • Receptor: glucocorticoid receptor

        Induced phenotype:

        • negative regulation of immune response
          • Corticosterone exerts its effects via both corticosteroid receptors in a concentration dependent manner in microglial cells. [8]
      • Receptor: CX3CR1

      Reference