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Details for anatomical structure: epiphysis

EndoNet ID: ENC00550

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Synonyms

epiphysis, pineal gland, pineal body, Glandula pinealis

General information

A small, unpaired, flattened body, shaped somewhat like a pine cone, attached at its anterior pole to the region of the posterior and habenular commissures, and lying in the depression between the two superior colliculi below the splenium of the corpus callosum; it is a glandular structure, composed of follicles containing epitheliod cells and lime concretions called brain sand; despite its attachment to the brain, it appears to receive nerve fibers exclusively from the peripheral autonomic nervous system; it produces melatonin

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0024759

Larger structures

    Substructures

      Secreted hormones

        Receptors

        • Receptor: melatonin 1 receptor

          Induced phenotype:

          • regulation of circadian rhythm
            • The pineal hormone Melatonin, important role in regulation of circadian rhythm control by interacting with MT1. [1]
          • regulation of seasonal reproduction
            • The pineal hormone Melatonin regulates seasonal rhythms, notably reproduction. [1]
        • Receptor: melatonin receptor type 1B

          Induced phenotype:

          • regulation of circadian rhythm
            • The pineal hormone Melatonin, important role in regulation of circadian rhythm control by interacting with MT2. [1]
          • regulation of seasonal reproduction
            • The pineal hormone Melatonin regulates seasonal rhythms, notably reproduction. [1]
        Reference