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Details for anatomical structure: liver

EndoNet ID: ENC00578

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Synonyms

liver, , Hepar

General information

The largest gland in the body of the vertebrates, exocrine, lying beneath the diaphragm in the right hypochondrium and upper part of the epigastrium; it is of irregular shape and weighs from 1 to 2 kg, it secretes the bile and is also of great importance in both carbohydrate and protein metabolism

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0048368

Larger structures

    Substructures

      Secreted hormones

      • Hormone: MSP

        • Hepatocyte growth factor-like protein (HGFL) is a liver-derived serum glycoprotein. [1]
      • Hormone: SAA1

        • SAA1 (Serum amyloid A1) protein is produced mainly in the liver and circulates in low levels in the blood.

        Influenced by:

        • IL-6R
          in hepatocyte
      • Hormone: FAM3A

      • Hormone: Serotransferrin

      • Hormone: FGF-23

      • Hormone: calcidiol

        • Prehormon wich is produced by hydroxylation of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) in the liver.
        • Calcidiol is then converted in the kidneys (by the enzyme 25(OH)D-1α-hydroxylase) into calcitriol (1,25-(OH)2D3), a secosteroid hormone that is the active form of vitamin D. It can also be converted into 24-hydroxycalcidiol in the kidneys via 24-hydroxylation.
      • Hormone: VLDL

      • Hormone: HDL

      • Hormone: chemerin

        • Abundant chemerin transcripts were found in liver, lung, pituitary, and ovary. [2]
        • Chemerin is secreted as a precursor of low biological activity, which upon proteolytic cleavage of its COOH-terminal domain, is converted into a potent and highly specific agonist of ChemR23, the chemerin receptor. [2]
      • Hormone: fetuin-B

        • This fetuin-B transcript could be detected in the liver and also at a lower level in the placenta. [3]

        Influenced by:

        • bile acid receptor
          in hepatocyte
          • FXR agonists induce fetuin-B expression in human primary hepatocytes. [4]

      Receptors

      • Receptor: THRB1

        • THRB expression pattern is more restricted, and is developmentally regulated. Its main expression sites are the liver, pituitary, inner ear, retina and several brain areas. [5]
      • Receptor: CHRNA1-2

      • Receptor: PRLR

        Induced phenotype:

        • increase in bile secretion
          • Prolactin has been shown to increase bile secretion. [6]
        • stimulation of lipoprotein lipase activity
          • Prolactin has marked effects on lipid metabolism. PRL stimulates lipoprotein lipase activity in the liver. [7]
        • Factor XII activation
          • In terms of more specific protective effects, PRL induces the production of coagulation factor XII by the liver. [8]
      • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 3

        Induced phenotype:

        • hepatic stellate cell migration
          • S1P3 regulates migration and fibrogenic activation of HSCs. [9]
      • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 4

      • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 5

      • Receptor: G-protein coupled receptor 4

      • Receptor: G-protein coupled receptor 12

      • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1

        Induced phenotype:

        • hepatic stellate cell migration
          • S1P1 regulates migration and fibrogenic activation of HSCs. [9]
      • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 2

      • Receptor: Psychosine receptor

        Induced phenotype:

        • negative regulation of oxidoreductase activity
          • Galactosylsphingosine, glucosylsphingosine and sphingosine all inhibited cytochrome c oxidase activity in mitochondria from rat liver. [10]
      • Receptor: AR

        Induced phenotype:

        • mediation of effects from thymus on liver
          • The thymus plays an important role in maintaining the drug-metabolizing enzyme activity, anti-oxidative ability and biomembrane integrity in the liver of rats. These effects are mediated by sex hormones. Androgen mainly mediates the regulation of the thymus on liver drug-metabolizing enzymes in male rats. [11]
      • Receptor: ER-alpha

        Induced phenotype:

        • mediation of effects from thymus on liver
          • The thymus plays an important role in maintaining the drug-metabolizing enzyme activity, anti-oxidative ability and biomembrane integrity in the liver of rats. These effects are mediated by sex hormones. Estrogen mainly mediates the effect of the thymus on liver anti-oxidative functions in female rats. [11]

        Influences:

        • CBG
          • Our results show that o,p′-DDD (mitotane) increases CBG expression and secretion by an ERα-dependent mechanism. [12]
      • Receptor: ER-beta

        Induced phenotype:

        • mediation of effects from thymus on liver
          • The thymus plays an important role in maintaining the drug-metabolizing enzyme activity, anti-oxidative ability and biomembrane integrity in the liver of rats. These effects are mediated by sex hormones. Estrogen mainly mediates the effect of the thymus on liver anti-oxidative functions in female rats. [11]
      • Receptor: 5-HT-2B

        Induced phenotype:

        • liver regeneration
          • 5-HT receptor subtype 2B mediates serotonin-dependent liver regeneration. [13]
      • Receptor: 5-HT-2A

      • Receptor: 5-HT-2A

        Induced phenotype:

        • liver regeneration
          • 5-HT receptor subtype 2A mediates serotonin-dependent liver regeneration. [13]
      • Receptor: PPAR beta/delta

        • A study with human tissues showed that PPARä was present in liver, intestine, kidney, abdominal adipose, and skeletal muscle, tissues that are all involved in aspects of lipid metabolism [14]
      Reference