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Details for messenger / hormone: IGF-1

EndoNet ID: ENH00031

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Synonyms

  • mechano growth factor
  • Somatomedin-C
  • insulin-like growth factor IA
  • IGF-1
  • IGF-I
  • insulin like growth factor 1
  • insulin-like growth factor I
  • somatomedin C

General information

  • Osteoblasts synthesize IGF-I and IGF-II which have mitogenic effects on bone cells. [1]
  • Virtually all IGF-1 in serum is complexed to IGFBPs. [2]
  • In normal adult serum, 75% to 80% of the IGF peptides are carried in a ternary complex consisting of one molecule of IGF plus one molecule of IGFBP-3 plus one molecule of an 88-kd protein termed the acid-labile subunit (ALS). [3]
  • Studies have suggested that the GH/IGF-I axis is one of the major determinants of adult bone mass. [4]
  • IGF-1 originates all the pathological changes in late-onset Alzheimer's disease in brain. [5]
  • The level of IGF-1 plays an important role in the development of colon cancer, this study suggestes a positive correlation between the increased levels of IGF-1 and colon cancer. [6]
  • IGF-1 reduces vascular inflammatory responses, systemic and vascular oxidant stress and decreases atherosclerotic plaque progression. [7]
  • Splice variants IGF-1A and-1B produce the same mature protein, IGF-1.
  • Hormone produced mainly in liver, but also in numerous extrahepatic tissues, that promotes differentiation, growth, and development. [8]
  • Does not circulate in a free form but rather attached to the binding proteins. [8]
  • The half-life of IGF peptides from approximately 10 minutes for IGF alone is extended to 1-2 hours for IGF in the IGF-IGFBP-3 binary complex to 12-15 hours for IGF in the ternary complex. [9]
  • Under most conditions, the IGFBPs appear to inhibit IGF action, presumably by competing with IGF receptors for binding IGF peptides. [10]

Classification

Hormone function

  • development and growth
    • growth stimulation

    Chemical classification

    • hormone
      • genome-encoded
        • insulin family

      Composition

      Insulin-like growth factor IA

      Sequence
      GPETLCGAE LVDALQFVC GDRGFYFNK 
      PTGYGSSSR RAPQTGIVD ECCFRSCDL 
      RRLEMYCAP LKPAKSA
      UniProt P01343

      Links to other resources

      UniProt P01343
      Ensembl ENST00000456098
      KEGG 3479
      • Anatomical structure: ovary

      • Anatomical structure: fat_cell

      • Anatomical structure: prostate

      • Anatomical structure: testis

      • Anatomical structure: acidophil_somatotroph_cell_of_anterior_pituitary

      • Anatomical structure: uterus

      • Anatomical structure: osteoblast

        • IGF-1 and IGF-2 are expressed by osteoblasts and act locally to stimulate both bone formation and resorption. [12]

        Influenced by:

        • AR
          in osteoblast
          • The nonaromatizable androgen, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (5alphaDHT), and testosterone, but not dehydroepiandrosterone, increased IGF-I messenger RNA (mRNA) levels up to 4-fold in a dose (10(-12)-10(-6) M)- and time (2-72 h)-dependent fashion. [13]
        • ER-alpha
          in osteoblast
          • Human fetal osteoblast cells (hFOB/ER9) with E2 increased steady state levels of IGF-I mRNA in a time- and dose- dependent fashion with a maximal increase of 319% +/- 33% (P < 0.01) of control occurring after treatment with 10(-7) M E2 for 48 hours. [14]
        • ER-beta
          in osteoblast
          • Human fetal osteoblast cells (hFOB/ER9) with E2 increased steady state levels of IGF-I mRNA in a time- and dose- dependent fashion with a maximal increase of 319% +/- 33% (P < 0.01) of control occurring after treatment with 10(-7) M E2 for 48 hours. [14]
      • Anatomical structure: adipose_tissue

      • Anatomical structure: hepatocyte

        Influenced by:

        • glucocorticoid receptor
          in hepatocyte
          • IGF-1 is synthesized in hepatocytes upon GH stimulation. [15]
      • Anatomical structure: intestinal_smooth_muscle_cell

        Influenced by:

        • IGFBP-5 receptor
          in intestinal_smooth_muscle_cell
          • An IGFBP-5 receptor is present in human intestinal smooth muscle cells. Binding of IGFBP-5 to its cognate receptor activates both the p38 MAP kinase and Erk1/2 signaling cascades. Activation of these pathways by IGFBP-5 mediates jointly stimulation of growth and secretion of IGF-I. [16]

      Targets

      CellIGF-1Rinsulin receptor
      acidophil somatotroph cell of anterior pituitary Present
      Phenotypes
      • cell growth
      • positive regulation of cell proliferation
      • negative regulation of apoptosis
      • transformation
      Influences
      • GH
      adrenal cortex Present
      alpha cell of islet of Langerhans Present
      Influences
      • glucagon
      arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus Present
      Influences
      • NPY
      • AGRP
      • alpha-MSH
      • insulin
      basophil corticotroph cell of anterior pituitary Present
      Phenotypes
      • tertiary adrenal insufficiency
      Influences
      • ACTH
      • lipotropin beta
      beta cell of islet of Langerhans Present
      Phenotypes
      • Diabetes mellitus type 2
      • Leprechaunism
      • Diabetes mellitus type 1
      • Maturity onset diabetes of the young
      • Insulimona
      • Hypoglycemia
      Influences
      • insulin receptor substrate 1
      • insulin
      chondrocyte Present
      continuous vascular endothelial cell of blood vessels and lymphatics Present
      continuous vascular endothelial cell of blood vessels and lymphatics Present
      Influences
      • annexin A2
      Present
      Influences
      • annexin A2
      • NO
      fat cell Present
      Influences
      • VEGF-165
      • IL-8
      • leptin
      heart Present
      lung Present
      Influences
      • amphiregulin
      microvascularendothelial cell Present
      osteoblast Present
      skeleton muscle Present
      Reference