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Details for messenger / hormone: LH

EndoNet ID: ENH00038

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Synonyms

  • LH
  • lutropin
  • ICSH
  • interstitial cell-stimulating hormone
  • luteinizing hormone

General information

  • Composed of common alpha (CGA) and beta subunit (LHB).
  • A peptide hormone released by the pituitary gland to control the development of the female follicle (in conjunction with FSH, follicle-stimulating hormone) and initiate ovulation. It induces estrogen or progesterone production, depending on the time point in the cycle. In men, it stimulates the intratesticular Leydig cells to produce testosterone.
  • LH modulates amyloid-beta protein precursor processing in vivo and in vitro and contributes to Alzheimer disease pathology through an amyloid-dependent mechanism. [1]

Classification

Hormone function

  • reproduction and sexual differentiation
    • reproduction

    Chemical classification

    • hormone
      • genome-encoded
        • glycoprotein hormones family
          • gonadotropic hormones

      Composition

      beta (1 times)

      Sequence
      SREPLRPWC HPINAILAV EKEGCPVCI 
      TVNTTICAG YCPTMMRVL QAVLPPLPQ 
      VVCTYRDVR FESIRLPGC PRGVDPVVS 
      FPVALSCRC GPCRRSTSD CGGPKDHPL 
      TCDHPQLSG LLFL
      UniProt P01229

      alpha (1 times)

      Sequence
      APDVQDCPE CTLQENPFF SQPGAPILQ 
      CMGCCFSRA YPTPLRSKK TMLVQKNVT 
      SESTCCVAK SYNRVTVMG GFKVENHTA 
      CHCSTCYYH KS
      UniProt P01215

      Links to other resources

      • Anatomical structure: basophil_gonadotroph_cell_of_anterior_pituitary_FSH

        Influenced by:

        • gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor
          in basophil_gonadotroph_cell_of_anterior_pituitary_FSH
          • Correlation between the GnRH-stimulated release of both LH and SgII in vitro. [2]
          • Co-localization and co-release of LH and SgII in vivo. [3]
          • SgII plays an important role in the regulated secretion of LH. [4]
          • Combined activin+GnRH induced a further increase over individual treatment levels, which appeared to be additive rather than synergistic. [4]
          • LH released in response to GnRH is co-released with SgII via a regulated secretory pathway and that the activinstimulated LH release is probably via a constitutive, SgII-granule-independent pathway. [4]
        • unspecified testosterone receptor 2
          in basophil_gonadotroph_cell_of_anterior_pituitary_FSH
          • Feedback inhibition of testosterone on the synthesis and secretion of LH from the pituitary. [5]
        • ER-alpha
          in basophil_gonadotroph_cell_of_anterior_pituitary_FSH
          • Action of estradiol is dependent upon its concentration. It can either in- or decrease the cells' responsiveness to GnRH. [6]
        • CXCR1
          in basophil_gonadotroph_cell_of_anterior_pituitary_FSH
          • CINC/gro suppresses rapid the basal LH secretion from normal anterior pituitary cells in a concentration-dependent manner. [7]
        • ACTRIIA
          in basophil_gonadotroph_cell_of_anterior_pituitary_FSH
          • Activin had a stimulatory effect on LH secretion, although this response was not dose dependent. [4]
          • Combined activin+GnRH induced a further increase over individual treatment levels, which appeared to be additive rather than synergistic. [4]
        • unspecified progesterone receptor
          in basophil_gonadotroph_cell_of_anterior_pituitary_FSH
          • Short exposure to physiological levels of progesterone in the range of early luteal phase levels has a stimulatory effect on LH secretion by acting directly at the pituitary level. [8]
        • NPFF-R1
          in pituitary_gland_of_diencephalon
          • Thus, GnIH/RFRP may inhibit gonadotropin synthesis and release by direct actions on the pituitary gland. [9]
      • Anatomical structure: pituitary_gland_of_diencephalon

        Influenced by:

        • FTS receptor
          in pituitary_gland_of_diencephalon
          • Thymulin modulates possibly the secretion of LH by the anterior pituitary gland and that its actions are associated with increased cyclic nucleotide formation. [10]
        • ER-alpha:ER-beta
          in pituitary_gland_of_diencephalon
          • In female ER alpha knock out mice, disruption of the negative feedback actions of estradiol in the hypothalamic-pituitary axisresults in elevated levels of the gonadotropin subunit mRNAs in the pituitary and in serum LH. [11]

      Targets

      CellLHCGR-1
      cell of adrenal gland zona glomerulosa Present
      Influences
      • progesterone
      granulosa cell Present
      Phenotypes
      • regulation of ovulation
      Influences
      • progesterone
      • estrogen
      Leydig cell of testis Present
      Influences
      • testosterone
      theca cell Present
      Influences
      • androstenedione
      • testosterone
      Reference