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Details for messenger / hormone: SP

EndoNet ID: ENH00054

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Synonyms

  • SP
  • substance P
  • tachykinin 1 isoform delta

General information

  • Substance P is catabolized by degradative enzymes in tears to maintain the ocular surface by exerting the trophic effects of SP while avoiding undesirable effects. [1]
  • Substance P induces expression of the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 by activation of the neurokinin-1 receptor. [2]
  • SP stimulates platelet aggregation. [3]
  • Substance P, the most abundant neurokinin in the CNS, is a major modulator of the immune system. [4]
  • Human monocytes and macrophages express substance P and neurokinin-1 receptor. [5]
  • Tachykinins are active peptides which excite neurons, evoke behavioral responses, are potent vasodilators and secretagogues, and contract (directly or indirectly) many smooth muscles. [6]
  • Substance P (SP) interacts with the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) G-protein-coupled receptor. [7]

Classification

Hormone function

  • CNS function
    • pain
      • neurotransmitter

      Chemical classification

      • hormone
        • genome-encoded
          • peptide neurotransmitters
            • tachykinins

        Composition

        Substance P

        Sequence
        RPKPQQFFG LM
        UniProt P20366

        Links to other resources

        UniProt P20366
        Ensembl ENST00000414974
        KEGG hsa:6863

          Targets

          Cellneurokinin-2 receptorneuropilin 1NK-3RSPR
          blood vessel Present
          Phenotypes
          • excess of capillary formation
          • patterning of blood vessels
          bone marrow Present
          brain Present
          Phenotypes
          • axon guidance
          corpus striatum Present
          Phenotypes
          • sensory perception of pain
          glomerulus Present
          Phenotypes
          • induction of podocyte apoptosis
          • formation of glomerular filter barrier
          • inhibition of glomerular capillary lumen development
          • patterning of blood vessels
          • positive regulation of apoptosis
          heart Present
          Phenotypes
          • patterning of blood vessels
          kidney Present
          Phenotypes
          • inhibition of ureteric bud branching
          • excess of endothelial cells
          • podocyte differentiation
          • cell differentiation
          • acute nephrotic range proteinuria
          lung Present
          mammary gland Present
          pancreas Present
          placenta Present
          podocyte Present
          skeleton muscle Present
          Reference