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Details for messenger / hormone: testosterone

EndoNet ID: ENH00057

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  • testosterone
  • T
  • 17beta-hydroxy-4-androsten-3-one
  • d4-androsten-17b-ol-3-one

General information

  • Necessary for the development of secondary sexual characteristics and maintenance of normal sexual function in the male. [1]
  • The primary androgenic steroid hormone, produced by the Leydig cells of the male testes and also in smaller quantities by the ovary and the adrenal glands of the both sexes. [1]
  • Testosterone plays an important role in the onset and development of neurodegenerative diseases. [2]
  • Testosterone plays a role in modulating hypertension in adult male intrauterine growth restriction offspring with participation of the renin-angiotensin system. [3]
  • Testosterone enhances hippocampal neurogenesis through increased cell survival in the dentate gyrus. [4]
  • Testosterone plays an important role in modulating the physiology of the vagina and contributes to improvement of genital sexual arousal responses. [5]
  • Testosterone reduces temporomandibular joint pain at supraphysiological serum levels. [6]
  • Free testosterone level is the most sensitive biochemical marker for the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome. [7]


Hormone function

  • reproduction and sexual differentiation
    • sexual differentiation

    Chemical classification

    • hormone
      • not genome-encoded
        • sterol lipids
          • steroids
            • androgens


      KEGG C00535

      Links to other resources

      KEGG C00535
      LIPID MAPS LMST02020002
      LipidBank SST0020
      • Anatomical structure: Leydig_cell_of_testis

        Influenced by:

        • LHCGR-1
          in Leydig_cell_of_testis
          • Luteinizing hormone secretion from pituitary and subsequent activation of Luteinizing hormone receptor in Leydig cells at the onset of puberty promotes testosterone synthesis, required for secondary sexual characteristics in males. [8]
        • ACTH receptor
          in testis
          • The testicular melanocortin type 2 receptors appear to be functionally active since ACTH will stimulate testosterone production by the fetal and neonatal mouse testis which both contain fetal-type Leydig cells although the effects are lost in the postpubertal animal. [9]
        • G-protein coupled receptor GPCR33
          in Leydig_cell_of_testis
          • Osteocalcin favors male fertility is by increasing testosterone synthesis in Leydig cells. Testosterone, in turn, supports maturation and prevents apoptosis of germ cells [10]
      • Anatomical structure: cell_of_adrenal_gland_zona_reticularis

        Influenced by:

        • ACTH receptor
          in cell_of_adrenal_gland_zona_reticularis
        • IL-6R
          in cell_of_adrenal_gland_zona_reticularis
      • Anatomical structure: theca_cell

        Influenced by:

        • LHCGR-1
          in theca_cell
        • ER-alpha
          in uterus
          • Female estrogen receptor knock out mice develop glomerulosclerosis at 9 months of age due to excessive ovarian testosterone production and secretion. [11]
        • ER-beta
          in uterus
          • Female estrogen receptor knock out mice develop glomerulosclerosis at 9 months of age due to excessive ovarian testosterone production and secretion. [11]
        • ER-beta
          in theca_lutein_cell
          • Estradiol treatment inhibits stimulatory effect hCG on testosterone production by theca cells. [12]
      • Anatomical structure: adrenal_cortex


      CellSHBG-Runspecified testosterone receptor 1unspecified testosterone receptor 2
      arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus Present
      • GnRH-I
      • metastin
      basophil gonadotroph cell of anterior pituitary FSH Present
      • FSH
      • LH
      prostate Present
      • free PSA