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Details for messenger / hormone: FSH

EndoNet ID: ENH00074

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Synonyms

  • FSH
  • follicle-stimulating hormone
  • follitropin

General information

  • Females: stimulates the Graafian follicles and assists in follicular maturation and in the secretion of estradiol. [1]
  • Females: promotes growth of the granulosa cells of the tertiary follicle as well as glycolysis and protein synthesis in the ovary. [2]
  • 2 subunits: alpha (=CGA) and beta (=FSHB).
  • A glycosylated peptide hormone secreted and released by the anterior pituitary.
  • Males: stimulates the epithelium of the seminiferous tubules and assists in inducing spermatogenesis [1]; causes the production of androgen binding protein by Sertoli cells and the enlargement of the Tubuli seminiferi. [2]
  • Males: promotes spermiogenesis. [2]
  • FSH is the only factor required in order to induce follicular growth in the human. [3]
  • Glycoprotein hormone. [1]
  • Sex steroid. [4]
  • FSH is released from the pituitary gland in pulses. Changing the pattern of the GnRH pulses results in coincedental changes in the pattern of pulsatile secretion of FSH. [5]
  • Heterodimer of a common alpha chain and a unique beta chain which confers biological specificity to thyrotropin, lutropin, follitropin and gonadotropin. [6]

Classification

Hormone function

  • reproduction and sexual differentiation
    • reproduction

    Chemical classification

    • hormone
      • genome-encoded
        • glycoprotein hormones family
          • gonadotropic hormones

      Composition

      alpha (1 times)

      Sequence
      APDVQDCPE CTLQENPFF SQPGAPILQ 
      CMGCCFSRA YPTPLRSKK TMLVQKNVT 
      SESTCCVAK SYNRVTVMG GFKVENHTA 
      CHCSTCYYH KS
      UniProt P01215

      beta (1 times)

      Sequence
      NSCELTNIT IAIEKEECR FCISINTTW 
      CAGYCYTRD LVYKDPARP KIQKTCTFK 
      ELVYETVRV PGCAHHADS LYTYPVATQ 
      CHCGKCDSD STDCTVRGL GPSYCSFGE 
      MKE
      UniProt P01225

      FSH beta polypeptide, variant 1 (1 times)

      Sequence
      NSCELTNIT IAIEKEECR FCISINTTW 
      CAGYCYTRD LVYKDPARP KIQKTCTFK 
      ELVYETVRV PGCAHHADS LYTYPVATQ 
      CHCGKCDSD STDCTVRGL GPSYCSFGE 
      MKE

      FSH beta polypeptide, variant 2 (1 times)

      Sequence
      NSCELTNIT IAIEKEECR FCISINTTW 
      CAGYCYTRD LVYKDPARP KIQKTCTFK 
      ELVYETVRV PGCAHHADS LYTYPVATQ 
      CHCGKCDSD STDCTVRGL GPSYCSFGE 
      MKE

      Links to other resources

      UniProt P01225
      Ensembl ENST00000417547
      KEGG K05250
      • Anatomical structure: melanocyte

        Influenced by:

        • thrombin receptor
          in brain
        • gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor
          in basophil_gonadotroph_cell_of_anterior_pituitary_FSH
        • ER-alpha
          in basophil_gonadotroph_cell_of_anterior_pituitary_FSH
          • The action of estradiol is dependent upon its concentration. It can either increase or decrease the responsiveness to GnRH. [7]
      • Anatomical structure: Sertoli_cell

      • Anatomical structure: basophil_gonadotroph_cell_of_anterior_pituitary_FSH

        Influenced by:

        • CXCR1
          in basophil_gonadotroph_cell_of_anterior_pituitary_FSH
          • CINC/gro suppresses rapid the basal FSH secretion from normal anterior pituitary cells in a concentration-dependent manner. [8]
        • ER-alpha:ER-beta
          in basophil_gonadotroph_cell_of_anterior_pituitary_FSH
          • Regulation of FSH release is through negative feedback of gonadal steroids, particularly estradiol, which act directly at the pituitary.
        • unspecified testosterone receptor 1
          in basophil_gonadotroph_cell_of_anterior_pituitary_FSH
          • Regulation of FSH release is through negative feedback of gonadal steroids, particularly testosterone, which act directly at the pituitary. [9]
        • ACTRIIA
          in basophil_gonadotroph_cell_of_anterior_pituitary_FSH
          • While FSH secretion in LbetaT2 cells was stimulated, in a dose-dependent manner, by activin alone, and was unaffected by GnRH alone, there was a synergistic effect between the two treatments. [9]
          • FSH produced in LbetaT2 cells under activin/GnRH stimulation is constitutively secreted via a granin-independent pathway. [9]
        • gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor
          in basophil_gonadotroph_cell_of_anterior_pituitary_FSH
          • GnRH requires the presence of activin in order to exert its action. [9]
        • NPFF-R1
          in pituitary_gland_of_diencephalon
          • Thus, GnIH/RFRP may inhibit gonadotropin synthesis and release by direct actions on the pituitary gland. [10]

      Targets

      Cellfollitropin receptor
      cell of adrenal gland zona glomerulosa Present
      Influences
      • progesterone
      granulosa cell Present
      Phenotypes
      • granulosa cell differentiation
      • ovarian follicle development
      Influences
      • estradiol
      Sertoli cell Present
      Influences
      • inhibin B
      Reference