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Details for messenger / hormone: PTH

EndoNet ID: ENH00107

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  • parathyroid hormone
  • parathyrin
  • parathormone
  • PTH

General information

  • PTH stimulates osteoclast formation by binding to its receptor on stromal/osteoblastic cells and stimulating the production of receptor activator of NFkappaB ligand (RANKL) and inhibiting the expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG). [1]
  • Hyaluronan (HA) synthesis was dramatically stimulated by PTH. A 5-6-fold increase in HA production was observed using 10(-8) M PTH [2]
  • PTH exerts an antiapoptotic effect on osteoblasts via cAMP-mediated signals. [3]
  • PTH acts directly on human osteoclasts and also, indirectly, via osteoblasts. [4]
  • PTH plays an important role in bone metabolism and has both catabolic and anabolic effects on bone. These effects are mediated via PTH receptors in bone and indirectly through regulation of the vitamin D/calcium axis via receptors in the kidney. [3]
  • PTH is mainly regulated by calcium, phosphate and 1,25-(OH)2D3. [3]
  • PTH levels followed a bimodal diurnal rhythm with an average amplitude of 4.2 pg/mL.A primary peak (t1max) occurred at 0314 h, and the secondary peak (t2max) occurred at 1726 h, whereas the primary and secondary nadirs (t1min and t2min) took place, on the average, at 1041 and 2103 h. [5]


Hormone function

  • homeostasis
    • ion flow control

    Chemical classification

    • hormone
      • genome-encoded
        • parathyroid hormone family



      Parathyroid hormone mature peptide


      Links to other resources

      UniProt P01270
      Ensembl ENST00000282091
      KEGG hsa:5741
      • Anatomical structure: chief_cell_of_parathyroid_gland

        • The active hormonal form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and its analogues can reduce serum PTH levels by repressing PTH gene transcription and blocking parathyroid gland proliferation. These actions are mediated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR) present in the PTH-secreting chief cells of the parathyroid glands. [6]
        • The PTH-secretion is inhibited by high Ca 2+ and stimulated by low Ca 2+ concentrations detected by a calcium receptor on the cell surface of the chief cells. [7]

        Influenced by:

        • VDR
          in chief_cell_of_parathyroid_gland
          • Binding of extracellular calcium to the CaSR makes it possible to suppress the secretion of parathyroide hormone (PTH) from the parathyroid glands in patients with overactivity of these glands. [8]
        • ETA-R
          in chief_cell_of_parathyroid_gland
          • ET-1 dose-dependently (10e-10 -10e-7 M) inhibited basal PTH secretion by dispersed parathyroid adenoma cells. [9]
          • ET-1 displays an in vitro inhibitory effect on basal PTH secretion and also counteracts PTH hypersecretion stimulated by low calcium. [10]
        • ETB-R
          in chief_cell_of_parathyroid_gland
          • Higher concentrations (10e-8 - 10e-7 M) of ET-3 were required to inhibit PTH secretion. These data are consistent with the less predominant expression of ETB receptor subtype in the adenomatous tissue. [9]
      • Anatomical structure: mammary_gland

        Influenced by:

        • CaSR
          in mammary_gland
          • The CaR is expressed prominently in the parathyroid gland and in the kidney, and activation of the receptor by increased Ca2+ suppresses PTH secretion and increases renal calcium excretion [11]
      • Anatomical structure: parathyroid_gland

        Influenced by:

        • CaSR
          in parathyroid_gland
          • in physiological concentrations, L-amino acids acutely and reversibly activated the extracellular Ca2+-sensing receptor in normal human parathyroid cells and inhibited parathyroid hormone secretion. [12]
          • Parathormone (PTH) secretion from the parathyroid gland is suppressed by high extracellular calcium and magnesium. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is responsible for the calcium-dependent inhibition of PTH secretion. [13]
          • L-amino acids are physiological regulators of PTH secretion and thus whole body calcium metabolism. [12]
          • In the parathyroid gland, the CaSR mediates low extracellular calium-evoked increases in secretion of the extracellular calium-elevating hormone, parathyroid hormone, as well as in parathyroid cellular proliferation..22.9 [14]
        • IL-1RI
          in parathyroid_gland
          • IL-1 beta inhibits PTH secretion, this effect is blocked when (equine) parathyroid cells were incubated with an IL-1 receptor antagonist. [15]
        • IL-6R
          in parathyroid_gland
          • IL-6 decreases PTH secretion. [15]


      Cellparathyroid hormone 2 receptorPTHR1
      brain Present
      chondrocyte Present
      hematopoietic stem cell Present
      • RANKL
      kidney Present
      • phosphate ion homeostasis
      • familial isolated hypoparathyroidism
      • Primary hyperparathyroidism
      • calcitriol
      lung Present
      lymphocyte Present
      monocyte Present
      neutrophil granulocyte Present
      osteoblast Present
      • RANKL
      • M-CSF
      • interleukin 6
      • amphiregulin
      osteoclast Present
      pancreas Present
      placenta Present
      stromal cell of bone marrow Present
      • RANKL
      • M-CSF
      testis Present