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Details for messenger / hormone: PRL

EndoNet ID: ENH00111

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Synonyms

  • PRL
  • prolactin

General information

  • Acts to repress the reset of the menstrual cycle post partum. [1]
  • PRL promotes growth of a T cell lymphoma involving host and tumor-derived tumor growth promoting cytokines. [2]
  • PRL is a critical regulator of epithelial plasticity and an invasion suppressor hormone in breast cancer. [3]
  • PRL plays an important role in helping to protect against acute stress-induced hypocalcemia and gastric erosions. [4]
  • Stimulates and maintains the secretion of milk. [5]
  • Stimulates growth and metabolism. [1]
  • Influences osmoregulation, pigmentation, and "parent behavior". [1]

Classification

Hormone function

  • reproduction and sexual differentiation
    • reproduction

    Chemical classification

    • hormone
      • genome-encoded
        • growth hormones

      Composition

      Sequence
      LPICPGGAA RCQVTLRDL FDRAVVLSH 
      YIHNLSSEM FSEFDKRYT HGRGFITKA 
      INSCHTSSL ATPEDKEQA QQMNQKDFL 
      SLIVSILRS WNEPLYHLV TEVRGMQEA 
      PEAILSKAV EIEEQTKRL LEGMELIVS 
      QVHPETKEN EIYPVWSGL PSLQMADEE 
      SRLSAYYNL LHCLRRDSH KIDNYLKLL 
      KCRIIHNNN C

      Links to other resources

      UniProt P01236
      Ensembl ENST00000306482
      KEGG hsa:5617
      • Anatomical structure: acidophil_mammotroph_cell_of_anterior_pituitary

        Influenced by:

        • dopamine receptor D2
          in acidophil_mammotroph_cell_of_anterior_pituitary
        • TRH-R
          in acidophil_mammotroph_cell_of_anterior_pituitary
        • CXCR1
          in acidophil_mammotroph_cell_of_anterior_pituitary
          • CINC/ stimulates PRL secretion from anterior pituitary monolayer cultures in a concentration-dependent manner with a substantioal lag time. [7]
        • GHS-R1
          in pituitary_gland_of_diencephalon
          • ...stimulatory effect of CST on PRL release is exerted through a receptor not shared by SST...it has been reported that CST(...)binds with high affinity to GHS-R1a(...) which in turn is known to stimulate PRL secretion [8]
      • Anatomical structure: pituitary_gland_of_diencephalon

        Influenced by:

        • sst5
          in pituitary_gland_of_diencephalon
          • PRL secretion was inhibited in sst5-expressing tumors [9]
        • FTS receptor
          in pituitary_gland_of_diencephalon
          • Thymulin appears to exert an inhibitory influence on immunoreactive-PRL release. [10]

      Targets

      Cellgrowth hormone receptorgrowth hormone receptor delta 3PRLR
      adrenal cortex Present
      Phenotypes
      • positive regulation of steroid biosynthetic process
      arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus Present
      Influences
      • GHRH
      • dopamine
      astrocyte Present
      Phenotypes
      • regulation of cell proliferation
      B-lymphocyte Present
      bone Present
      brain Present
      Phenotypes
      • hyperphagia
      • decrease in libido
      • modulation of ATPase activity
      • regulation of sensory perception of pain
      • alteration of sleep-wake-cycle
      • increase in REM sleep
      • adaptive stress response
      • modulation of carbohydrate metabolism
      • induction of excessive grooming
      • pseudopregnancy
      breast Present
      Phenotypes
      • galactorrhea
      • breast cancer
      cardiac muscle Present
      cartilage Present
      cell of intermediate pituitary Present
      central nerve system element Present
      Phenotypes
      • experimental allergic encephalomyelitis
      • Systemic lupus erythematosus
      chondrocyte Present
      Present
      chorion Present
      Phenotypes
      • polyhydramnios
      cochlea Present
      colon Present
      Phenotypes
      • colorectal cancer
      corpus callosum Present
      corpus luteum Present
      corpus luteum Present
      corpus striatum Present
      digestive system Present
      Phenotypes
      • increase in size of intestinal mucosa
      • multicellular organismal water homeostasis
      duodenum Present
      epidermis Present
      epididymis Present
      Phenotypes
      • positive regulation of lipid metabolic process
      • energy reserve metabolic process
      fat cell Present
      Influences
      • leptin
      fat cell of brown fat Present
      Influences
      • leptin
      glial cell of central nervous system Present
      granulosa cell Present
      Influences
      • estrogen
      hair follicle Present
      Phenotypes
      • hair growth
      heart Present
      hepatocyte Present
      Present
      Phenotypes
      • increase in glycogen phosphorylase-a activation
      • positive regulation of cell proliferation
      hippocampus Present
      hypothalamus Present
      Phenotypes
      • tuberoinfundibular hypothalamic development
      • organ maturation
      ileum Present
      immune system Present
      Phenotypes
      • rheumatoid arthritis
      • graft-versus-host disease
      • adjuvant arthritis
      jejunum Present
      kidney Present
      Phenotypes
      • multicellular organismal water homeostasis
      • reduction of electrolyte excretion
      Kupffer cell stellate cell of liver Present
      Phenotypes
      • reduction of cytokine gene expression
      • positive regulation of cytokine biosynthetic process
      Leydig cell of testis Present
      Phenotypes
      • stimulation of testicular function
      liver Present
      Phenotypes
      • increase in bile secretion
      • stimulation of lipoprotein lipase activity
      • Factor XII activation
      lung Present
      Phenotypes
      • organ maturation
      • surfactant production
      • stimulation of phospholipid synthesis
      lymphocyte Present
      Phenotypes
      • positive regulation of immunoglobulin production
      • positive regulation of lymphocyte proliferation
      • interleukin-2 receptor complex
      • erythropoietin receptor activity
      • prolactin receptor activity
      • negative regulation of lymphocyte apoptosis
      • activation of malignant B cells
      • regulation of immune system process
      lymphoid tissue Present
      macrophage Present
      Phenotypes
      • macrophage activation during immune response
      mammary gland Present
      Phenotypes
      • synthesis of milk proteins
      • synthesis of lipids
      • synthesis of lactose
      • mammary gland development
      oesophagus Present
      olfactory bulb Present
      osteoblast Present
      ovary Present
      Phenotypes
      • maturation of germ cells
      • amenorrhea
      Influences
      • progesterone
      pancreas Present
      Phenotypes
      • regulation of glucose metabolic process
      • positive regulation of cell proliferation
      Influences
      • insulin
      pancreatic islets Present
      Phenotypes
      • regulation of glucose metabolic process
      pituitary gland of diencephalon Present
      Phenotypes
      • dwarfism
      • Acromegaly due to pituitary adenoma
      placenta Present
      Phenotypes
      • multicellular organismal water homeostasis
      preadipocyte Present
      Phenotypes
      • differentiation of preadipocytes
      prostate Present
      Phenotypes
      • proliferation of epithelial cells
      • prostate gland growth
      • regulation of androgen receptor signaling pathway
      • positive regulation of secretion
      • energy reserve metabolic process
      • positive regulation of insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling pathway
      • positive regulation of lipid metabolic process
      • regulation of inflammatory response
      renal cortex Present
      retina Present
      Sertoli cell Present
      Phenotypes
      • increase in FSH receptor number
      skeleton muscle Present
      Phenotypes
      • Laron syndrome
      Present
      skin Present
      Phenotypes
      • stimulation of keratinocyte growth
      • positive regulation of steroid biosynthetic process
      • cystic fibrosis
      • positive regulation of cell proliferation
      smooth muscle cell Present
      Phenotypes
      • positive regulation of smooth muscle proliferation
      spleen Present
      stomach Present
      submandibular gland Present
      sweat glands Present
      Phenotypes
      • reduction of electrolyte excretion
      • cystic fibrosis
      T-lymphocyte Present
      Phenotypes
      • regulation of immune system process
      testis Present
      Phenotypes
      • maturation of germ cells
      • impotence
      theca cell Present
      thymic epithelial cell Present
      Influences
      • Thymulin
      Present
      Influences
      • Thymulin
      thymus Present
      uterus Present
      Phenotypes
      • increase in progesterone receptor level
      • increase in estrogen receptor level
      • embryo implantation
      • uterine leiomyomas
      Reference