Status
Please wait ...

Details for messenger / hormone: GH

EndoNet ID: ENH00117

To link to the content of EndoNet use the EndoNet ID that is given on the detail pages in the format ENX0000, where X is a place holder for the type of the component (e. g. R for receptor or C for anatomical structure).
As URL for the linking append this ID to the detail page for this type of component.
For an hormone that would be:

http://endonet.bioinf.med.uni-goettingen.de/hormone/ENH00000

It is also possible to use the search of EndoNet to link to the right detail page. The URL should look like

http://endonet.bioinf.med.uni-goettingen.de/search/ENC00000
If the search pattern is unambigious the user is directed to the corresponding detail page.

Synonyms

  • growth hormone 1
  • pituitary growth hormone
  • GH
  • growth hormone
  • GH1
  • STH
  • somatotropin
  • somatotropic hormone
  • HGH

General information

  • Adult GH deficiency (AGHD) is associated with reduced bone mineral density. [1]
  • Studies have suggested that the GH/IGF-I axis is one of the major determinants of adult bone mass. [1]
  • Stimulates body growth is to stimulate the liver and other tissues to secrete IGF-1. It stimulates both the differentiation and proliferation of myoblasts. It also stimulates amino acid uptake and protein synthesis in muscle and other tissues. [2]
  • The most anabolic actions of GH are mediated through IGF peptides. [3]
  • GH has been shown to support phosphate retention by increasing the renal threshold for phosphate excretion, and this effect occurs independently of PTH, vitamin D, or urinary cAMP and is mediated by IGF-I. [1]

Classification

Hormone function

  • development and growth
    • growth stimulation

    Chemical classification

    • hormone
      • genome-encoded
        • growth hormones

      Composition

      Sequence
      FPTIPLSRL FDNAMLRAH RLHQLAFDT 
      YQEFEEAYI PKEQKYSFL QNPQTSLCF 
      SESIPTPSN REETQQKSN LELLRISLL 
      LIQSWLEPV QFLRSVFAN SLVYGASDS 
      NVYDLLKDL EEGIQTLMG RLEDGSPRT 
      GQIFKQTYS KFDTNSHND DALLKNYGL 
      LYCFRKDMD KVETFLRIV QCRSVEGSC 
      GF

      Links to other resources

      UniProt P01241
      Ensembl ENST00000323322
      KEGG hsa:2688
      • Anatomical structure: acidophil_somatotroph_cell_of_anterior_pituitary

        • GH secretion is regulated by indirect negative feedback mechanisms via autocrine actions of GH at the pituitary. [4]

        Influenced by:

        • sst5
          in acidophil_somatotroph_cell_of_anterior_pituitary
          • SSTR2 and SSTR5 mediate suppression of GH and TSH secretion. [5]
          • SRIF and CST similarly inhibited (p < 0.05) spontaneous GH secretion of about 90%. [6]
          • Somatostatin induced inhibition of GH secretion is mediated through (SSTR) 2 and 5. [7]
        • GHS-R1
          in acidophil_somatotroph_cell_of_anterior_pituitary
        • GHRH-R
          in acidophil_somatotroph_cell_of_anterior_pituitary
        • IGF-1R
          in acidophil_somatotroph_cell_of_anterior_pituitary
        • sst2
          in acidophil_somatotroph_cell_of_anterior_pituitary
          • SSTR2 and SSTR5 mediate suppression of GH and TSH secretion. [5]
          • SRIF and CST similarly inhibited (p < 0.05) spontaneous GH secretion of about 90%. [6]
          • Somatostatin induced inhibition of GH secretion is mediated through (SSTR) 2 and 5. [7]
        • CXCR1
          in acidophil_somatotroph_cell_of_anterior_pituitary
          • CINC/gro stiumaletes GH secretion from anterior pituitary monolayer cultures in a concentration-dependent manner with a substantial lag time. [8]
        • leptin receptor
          in acidophil_somatotroph_cell_of_anterior_pituitary
          • Leptin-deficient patients although exhibited normal height, presented decreased GH response to ITT and physical exercise, whereas leptin-resitant patients subjects have significant growth delay during early childhood and decreased GH secretion. [9]
        • GHS-R1
          in hypothalamus
          • GHS-R 1a mediates the classical GH-releasing effect [10]
      • Anatomical structure: hypothalamus

        Influenced by:

        • GHS-R1a
          in hypothalamus
          • Ghrelin is an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue type 1a receptor (GHS-R1a), the functionally active form of GHS-R, and stimulates feeding and growth hormone secretion. [11]
          • Ghrelin stimulates GH release by activating both AC and PLC pathways, either by binding to distinct binding pockets of GHS-R, and/or enabling dimeric GHS-R forms, or by binding and activating an alternate, different receptor. [12]
        • GHSR
          in hypothalamus
          • GHS-R in the hypothalamus is involved in the regulation of GH secretion, food intake, and adiposity. [13]
      • Anatomical structure: pituitary_gland_of_diencephalon

        Influenced by:

        • TRH-R
          in pituitary_gland_of_diencephalon
          • Tri-iodothyronine-induced downregulation of thyrotropin-releasing hormone-binding sites o pituitary membranes (meaning down-regulation of pituitary TRH receptors) inhibits GH secretion. [14]
        • CXCR4
          in pituitary_gland_of_diencephalon
          • SDF-1-alpha /CXCL12 causes both proliferation and growth hormone release, suggesting that the activation of CXCR4 may represent a novel regulatory mechanism for growth hormone secretion and pituitary cell proliferation, which may contribute to pituitary adenoma development. [15]

      Targets

      Cellgrowth hormone receptorPRLR
      adrenal cortex Present
      Phenotypes
      • positive regulation of steroid biosynthetic process
      arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus Present
      Influences
      • GHRH
      • dopamine
      astrocyte Present
      Phenotypes
      • regulation of cell proliferation
      B-lymphocyte Present
      bone Present
      brain Present
      Phenotypes
      • hyperphagia
      • decrease in libido
      • modulation of ATPase activity
      • regulation of sensory perception of pain
      • alteration of sleep-wake-cycle
      • increase in REM sleep
      • adaptive stress response
      • modulation of carbohydrate metabolism
      • induction of excessive grooming
      • pseudopregnancy
      breast Present
      Phenotypes
      • galactorrhea
      • breast cancer
      cardiac muscle Present
      cartilage Present
      cell of intermediate pituitary Present
      central nerve system element Present
      Phenotypes
      • experimental allergic encephalomyelitis
      • Systemic lupus erythematosus
      chondrocyte Present
      Present
      chorion Present
      Phenotypes
      • polyhydramnios
      cochlea Present
      colon Present
      Phenotypes
      • colorectal cancer
      corpus callosum Present
      corpus luteum Present
      corpus luteum Present
      corpus striatum Present
      digestive system Present
      Phenotypes
      • increase in size of intestinal mucosa
      • multicellular organismal water homeostasis
      duodenum Present
      epidermis Present
      epididymis Present
      Phenotypes
      • positive regulation of lipid metabolic process
      • energy reserve metabolic process
      fat cell Present
      Influences
      • leptin
      fat cell of brown fat Present
      Influences
      • leptin
      glial cell of central nervous system Present
      granulosa cell Present
      Influences
      • estrogen
      hair follicle Present
      Phenotypes
      • hair growth
      heart Present
      hepatocyte Present
      Present
      Phenotypes
      • increase in glycogen phosphorylase-a activation
      • positive regulation of cell proliferation
      hippocampus Present
      hypothalamus Present
      Phenotypes
      • tuberoinfundibular hypothalamic development
      • organ maturation
      ileum Present
      immune system Present
      Phenotypes
      • rheumatoid arthritis
      • graft-versus-host disease
      • adjuvant arthritis
      jejunum Present
      kidney Present
      Phenotypes
      • multicellular organismal water homeostasis
      • reduction of electrolyte excretion
      Kupffer cell stellate cell of liver Present
      Phenotypes
      • reduction of cytokine gene expression
      • positive regulation of cytokine biosynthetic process
      Leydig cell of testis Present
      Phenotypes
      • stimulation of testicular function
      liver Present
      Phenotypes
      • increase in bile secretion
      • stimulation of lipoprotein lipase activity
      • Factor XII activation
      lung Present
      Phenotypes
      • organ maturation
      • surfactant production
      • stimulation of phospholipid synthesis
      lymphocyte Present
      Phenotypes
      • positive regulation of immunoglobulin production
      • positive regulation of lymphocyte proliferation
      • interleukin-2 receptor complex
      • erythropoietin receptor activity
      • prolactin receptor activity
      • negative regulation of lymphocyte apoptosis
      • activation of malignant B cells
      • regulation of immune system process
      lymphoid tissue Present
      macrophage Present
      Phenotypes
      • macrophage activation during immune response
      mammary gland Present
      Phenotypes
      • synthesis of milk proteins
      • synthesis of lipids
      • synthesis of lactose
      • mammary gland development
      oesophagus Present
      olfactory bulb Present
      osteoblast Present
      ovary Present
      Phenotypes
      • maturation of germ cells
      • amenorrhea
      Influences
      • progesterone
      pancreas Present
      Phenotypes
      • regulation of glucose metabolic process
      • positive regulation of cell proliferation
      Influences
      • insulin
      pancreatic islets Present
      Phenotypes
      • regulation of glucose metabolic process
      pituitary gland of diencephalon Present
      Phenotypes
      • dwarfism
      • Acromegaly due to pituitary adenoma
      placenta Present
      Phenotypes
      • multicellular organismal water homeostasis
      preadipocyte Present
      Phenotypes
      • differentiation of preadipocytes
      prostate Present
      Phenotypes
      • proliferation of epithelial cells
      • prostate gland growth
      • regulation of androgen receptor signaling pathway
      • positive regulation of secretion
      • energy reserve metabolic process
      • positive regulation of insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling pathway
      • positive regulation of lipid metabolic process
      • regulation of inflammatory response
      renal cortex Present
      retina Present
      Sertoli cell Present
      Phenotypes
      • increase in FSH receptor number
      skeleton muscle Present
      Phenotypes
      • Laron syndrome
      Present
      skin Present
      Phenotypes
      • stimulation of keratinocyte growth
      • positive regulation of steroid biosynthetic process
      • cystic fibrosis
      • positive regulation of cell proliferation
      smooth muscle cell Present
      Phenotypes
      • positive regulation of smooth muscle proliferation
      spleen Present
      stomach Present
      submandibular gland Present
      sweat glands Present
      Phenotypes
      • reduction of electrolyte excretion
      • cystic fibrosis
      T-lymphocyte Present
      Phenotypes
      • regulation of immune system process
      testis Present
      Phenotypes
      • maturation of germ cells
      • impotence
      theca cell Present
      thymic epithelial cell Present
      Influences
      • Thymulin
      Present
      Influences
      • Thymulin
      thymus Present
      uterus Present
      Phenotypes
      • increase in progesterone receptor level
      • increase in estrogen receptor level
      • embryo implantation
      • uterine leiomyomas
      Reference