Status
Please wait ...

Details for messenger / hormone: ACTH

EndoNet ID: ENH00118

To link to the content of EndoNet use the EndoNet ID that is given on the detail pages in the format ENX0000, where X is a place holder for the type of the component (e. g. R for receptor or C for anatomical structure).
As URL for the linking append this ID to the detail page for this type of component.
For an hormone that would be:

http://endonet.bioinf.med.uni-goettingen.de/hormone/ENH00000

It is also possible to use the search of EndoNet to link to the right detail page. The URL should look like

http://endonet.bioinf.med.uni-goettingen.de/search/ENC00000
If the search pattern is unambigious the user is directed to the corresponding detail page.

Synonyms

  • Beta-MSH
  • Gamma-LPH
  • Beta-LPH
  • Alpha-MSH
  • Gamma-MSH
  • Corticotropin-lipotropin
  • Pro-opiomelanocortin
  • ACTH
  • corticotropin
  • adrenocorticotropic hormone
  • adrenocorticotropin
  • adrenocorticotrophin
  • adrenotropin
  • adrenotrophin
  • corticotrophin

General information

  • ACTH interacts with specific receptors in the adrenal cortex to stimulate production of glucocorticoids. It also stimulates adrenal blood flow and chronic increases results in adrenal hyperplasia and hyptrophy of the adrenal zona fasciculata. [1]
  • Irradiation of human keratinocytes or melanocytes with ultraviolet (UV) rays stimulates the synthesis and release of alpha-melanotropin (alpha-MSH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which induce cyclic AMP (cAMP) formation and increase the proliferation and melanogenesis of human melanocytes. [2]
  • ACTH is the key tropic hormone for the human fetal adrenal (HFA). [3]
  • ACTH up-regulates vascular endothelial growth factor in HFA cortical cells, preferentially angiopoietin-2. [3]

Classification

Hormone function

  • CNS function
    • stress response

    Chemical classification

    • hormone
      • genome-encoded
        • POMC family

      Composition

      Sequence
      SYSMEHFRW GKPVGKKRR PVKVYPNGA 
      EDESAEAFP LEF
      UniProt P01189

      Links to other resources

      UniProt P01189
      Ensembl ENST00000405623
      KEGG hsa:5443
      • Anatomical structure: basophil_corticotroph_cell_of_anterior_pituitary

        • The action of CRH on ACTH release is strongly potentiated by vasopressin, that is co-produced in increasing amounts when the hypothalamic paraventricular neurons are chronically activated. [4]
        • Vasopressin stimulates ACTH release in humans, oxytocin inhibits it. [4]
        • [5]
        • Pituitary corticotropic cells express a specific vasopressin receptor, called V1b or V3, through which vasopressin stimulates corticotropin secretion. [6]

        Influenced by:

        • insulin receptor
          in basophil_corticotroph_cell_of_anterior_pituitary
        • V1b
          in basophil_corticotroph_cell_of_anterior_pituitary
          • Vasopressin is an important regulator of pituitary adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) secretion, mainly by potentiating the stimulatory effect of corticotropin releasing hormone. [7]
          • Effect of vasopressin in the pituitary corticotrope cells are mediated by the vasopressin type 1b receptor subtype, which is coupled to phospholipase C, leading to increases in cytosolic calcium and activation of protein kinase C. [7]
        • CXCR1
          in basophil_corticotroph_cell_of_anterior_pituitary
          • CINC/gro stimulates ACTH secretion from anterior pituitary monolayer cultures with a substantial lag time. [8]
      • Anatomical structure: hair_follicle

      • Anatomical structure: cell_of_intermediate_pituitary

        Influenced by:

        • CaSR
          in mammary_gland
          • CaSR activation led to the stimulation of cAMP production, and PTHrP and ACTH secretion from these cells. [9]
        • CRF-R2
          in pituitary_gland_of_diencephalon
          • Inihibition of CRH in the hypothalamus inhibts secretion of ACTH in pituritary gland [10]
      • Anatomical structure: pituitary_gland_of_diencephalon

        Influenced by:

        • sst2
          in pituitary_gland_of_diencephalon
          • Selective sst5 activation regulates sst2 signaling resulting in an inhibition of ACTH secretion from pituitary tumor cells. [11]
        • sst5
          in pituitary_gland_of_diencephalon
          • Selective sst5 activation regulates sst2 signaling resulting in an inhibition of ACTH secretion from pituitary tumor cells. [11]
        • FTS receptor
          in pituitary_gland_of_diencephalon
          • Thymulin modulates the secretion of ACTH by the anterior pituitary gland and that its actions are associated with increased cyclic nucleotide formation. [12]
      • Anatomical structure: chromaffin_cell

        Influenced by:

        • VPAC1
          in adrenal_medulla
          • There is proof that VIP and PACAP can also enhance aldosterone secretion indirectly, by eliciting the release from medullary chromaffin cells of catecholamines and adrenocorticotropic hormone, which in turn may act on the cortical cells in a paracrine manner. [13]
        • VPAC2
          in adrenal_medulla
          • There is proof that VIP and PACAP can also enhance aldosterone secretion indirectly, by eliciting the release from medullary chromaffin cells of catecholamines and adrenocorticotropic hormone, which in turn may act on the cortical cells in a paracrine manner. [13]

      Targets

      CellACTH receptorMC1Rmelanocortin receptor 3melanocortin receptor 5melanocortin-4 receptor
      adipose tissue Present
      Influences
      • interleukin 6
      Present
      Influences
      • interleukin 6
      Present
      Influences
      • leptin
      adrenal cortex Present
      Phenotypes
      • Cushing syndrome
      • Familial glucocorticoid deficiency type I
      • Glucocorticoid remediable aldosteronism
      • Adrenocortical carcinoma
      • Addison disease
      arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus Present
      Phenotypes
      • negative regulation of appetite
      Present
      Phenotypes
      • negative regulation of appetite
      cell of adrenal gland zona fasciculata Present
      Influences
      • cortisone
      • cortisol
      • corticosterone
      cell of adrenal gland zona glomerulosa Present
      Influences
      • aldosterone
      cell of adrenal gland zona reticularis Present
      Influences
      • dehydro-3-epiandrosterone
      • testosterone
      • androstenedione
      continuous vascular endothelial cell of blood vessels and lymphatics Present
      epithelial cell Present
      fibroblast Present
      Phenotypes
      • suppression of interstitial fibrosis
      hair follicle Present
      Phenotypes
      • cellular response to cortisol stimulus
      Present
      heart Present
      keratinocyte Present
      Leydig cell of testis Present
      melanocyte Present
      Phenotypes
      • pigmentation
      Present
      Phenotypes
      • melanin synthesis
      • antiapoptotic effect
      Influences
      • MSH
      paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus Present
      Phenotypes
      • promotion of positive energy balance
      • negative regulation of appetite
      • obesity
      Present
      Phenotypes
      • promotion of positive energy balance
      • negative regulation of appetite
      • obesity
      placenta Present
      sebaceous glands Present
      Phenotypes
      • sebogenesis
      • sebaceous gland development
      skin Present
      Influences
      • MSH
      testis Present
      Phenotypes
      • androgen biosynthetic process
      Influences
      • testosterone
      Present
      Present
      Present
      thymic epithelial cell Present
      Influences
      • Thymulin
      Reference