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Details for messenger / hormone: ghrelin

EndoNet ID: ENH00127

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Synonyms

  • ghrelin-27
  • protein M46
  • growth hormone-releasing peptide
  • appetite-regulating hormone
  • GHRL
  • MTLRP
  • obestatin
  • growth hormone releasing peptide
  • motilin-related peptide
  • appetite regulating hormone
  • growth hormone secretagogue
  • M46 protein
  • ghrelin-28
  • ghrelin

General information

  • It also functions in the regulation of feeding behavior, energy metabolism, and gastric acid secretion and motility. [1]
  • Ghrelin is a 28-amino acid peptide with an essential n-octanoyl modification at Ser3. [2]
  • Ghrelin is present in pancreatic alpha-cells of humans and rats and stimulates insulin secretion. [1]
  • Ghrelin-immunoreactive cells are identified at the periphery of pancreatic islets. [1]
  • Predominantly produced by the stomach. [3]
  • Specific ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1 (GHSR) inducing the release of growth hormone from the pituitary.
  • Has an appetite-stimulating effect, induces adiposity and stimulates gastric acid secretion.
  • Involved in growth regulation.
  • Peptide hormone secreted by the stomach before meals that stimulates the amount of food eaten. [4]
  • Displays strong growth hormone (GH)-releasing action mediated by the activation of the GH secretagogue (GHS) receptor (GHS-R) type Ia. [3]
  • OXM may exert its effects on appetite via suppression of ghrelin, an orexigenic peptide produced by endocrine cells in the oxyntic glands of the stomach. [5]

Classification

Hormone function

Chemical classification

  • hormone
    • genome-encoded
      • gastrointestinal hormones

Composition

Obestatin

Sequence
ALAGWLRPE DGGQAEGAE DELEVRFNA 
PFDVGIKLS GVQYQQHSQ ALGKFLQDI 
LWEEAKEAP ADK
UniProt Q9UBU3

Ghrelin-28

Sequence
GSSFLSPEH QRVQQRKES KKPPAKLQP 
R
UniProt Q9UBU3
KEGG hsa:51738

Links to other resources

UniProt Q9UBU3
Ensembl ENST00000457360
KEGG C16025
  • Anatomical structure: stomach

    Influenced by:

    • GL-R
      in stomach
      • These results suggest that glucagon stimulates acute release of both forms of ghrelin and thereafter upregulates synthesis and release of desacyl-ghrelin in the rat stomach. [6]
  • Anatomical structure: alpha_cell_of_islet_of_Langerhans

    • Ghrelin is present in pancreatic alpha-cells of humans and rats and stimulates insulin secretion. [1]
  • Anatomical structure: adipose_tissue

  • Anatomical structure: enteroendocrine_cell_of_gastrointestinal_tract

Targets

CellGHS-R1GHS-R1aGHSR
acidophil somatotroph cell of anterior pituitary Present
Influences
  • GH
arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus Present
Phenotypes
  • positive regulation of appetite
  • regulation of feeding behavior
  • Short stature
Influences
  • AGRP
  • NPY
  • POMC
Present
Phenotypes
  • regulation of synapse organization
  • positive regulation of appetite
hypothalamus Present
Phenotypes
  • memory performance
  • positive regulation of appetite
  • Short stature
Influences
  • GH
Present
Influences
  • GH
  • orexin-A
Present
Influences
  • GH
pituitary gland of diencephalon Present
Phenotypes
  • Short stature
Influences
  • PRL
thyroid gland Present
Reference