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Details for messenger / hormone: NPY

EndoNet ID: ENH00164

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Synonyms

  • PYY4
  • neuropeptide Y
  • NPY
  • neuropeptide tyrosine
  • Y neuropeptide

General information

  • A neuronal peptide consisting of 36 amino acids. [1]
  • Leptin inhibits neurons that increase food intake including those expressing NPY and AGRP. [2]
  • Hypothalamic neurotransmitter that stimulates food intake and reduces energy expenditure. [3]
  • Increased NPY synthesis, storage, and release in the ARC-PVN axis (arcuate nucleus - paraventricularis nucleus axis) are triggered by the clock mechanism in anticipation of mealtime and NPY secretion subsides as food consumption is initiated. [4]
  • Peptide YY and neuropeptide Y, both members of the pancreatic polypeptide family, can be processed by dipeptidyl peptidase IV to their (3-36) fragments by removal of the N-terminal Tyr-Pro dipeptide, which generates a metabolite of different receptor selectivity. [5]
  • Leptin is an adipose tissue-derived secretory hormone that suppresses appetite by inhibition of neuropepeptide Y (NPY) gene expression in arcuate nucleus (ARC) in the hypothalamus. [6]
  • NPY produced and released in the ARC-PVN axis displays two rhythmic effux patterns (circadian and ultradian), as directed by two functionally opposing rhythmic afferent hormonal signals: leptin from adipocytes and ghrelin from the stomach. [4]

Classification

Hormone function

  • metabolism
    • nutrient supply

    Chemical classification

    • hormone
      • genome-encoded
        • peptide neurotransmitters
          • NPY family

      Composition

      Pro-neuropeptide Y

      Sequence
      MLGNKRLGL SGLTLALSL LVCLGALAE 
      AYPSKPDNP GEDAPAEDM ARYYSALRH 
      YINLITRQR YGKRSSPET LISDLLMRE 
      STENVPRTR LEDPAMW
      UniProt P01303

      Neuropeptide Y

      Sequence
      YPSKPDNPG EDAPAEDMA RYYSALRHY 
      INLITRQRY

      C-flanking Peptide of NPY

      Sequence
      SSPETLISD LLMRESTEN VPRTRLEDP 
      AMW

      Links to other resources

      UniProt P01303
      Ensembl ENST00000407573
      KEGG hsa:4852
      • Anatomical structure: brain_stem

      • Anatomical structure: basophil_thyrotroph_cell_of_anterior_pituitary

      • Anatomical structure: arcuate_nucleus_of_hypothalamus

        • NPY neurons coexpress ghrelin receptors and the orexigens, agouti-related peptide (AgrP) and {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA). [8]
        • The orexigenic neuropeptides that are downregulated by leptin are NPY (neuropeptide Y), MCH (melanin-concentrating hormone), orexins, and AGRP (agouti-related peptide). [9]
        • Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) are potent food-stimulating neuropeptides that are highly co-localised in arcuate nucleus neurons of the hypothalamus. [10]

        Influenced by:

        • insulin receptor
          in arcuate_nucleus_of_hypothalamus
        • leptin receptor
          in arcuate_nucleus_of_hypothalamus
          • Decrease in Leptin causes increase in NPY secretion in rats during lactation [11]
        • GHS-R1
          in arcuate_nucleus_of_hypothalamus
        • NPY2-R
          in arcuate_nucleus_of_hypothalamus
        • NPY2-R
          in hypothalamus
          • PYY(3-36) binding to NPY2-R inhibits orexigenic NPY in hypothalamus causing short-term inhibition of food intake [12]
      • Anatomical structure: astrocyte

      • Anatomical structure: B-lymphocyte

      Targets

      CellNPY1-RNPY2-RNPY4-RNPY5-R
      amygdaloid body Present
      Present
      arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus Present
      Phenotypes
      • positive regulation of appetite
      Present
      Phenotypes
      • negative regulation of appetite
      • positive regulation of appetite
      Influences
      • NPY
      • AGRP
      Present
      Phenotypes
      • positive regulation of appetite
      Present
      Phenotypes
      • positive regulation of appetite
      Influences
      • GnRH-I
      blood vessel Present
      caudate nucleus Present
      colon Present
      corpus callosum Present
      hippocampus Present
      hypothalamus Present
      Influences
      • NPY
      Present
      ileum Present
      kidney Present
      left coronary artery Present
      osteoblast Present
      pancreas Present
      right coronary artery Present
      small intestine Present
      smooth muscle Present
      substantia nigra Present
      subthalamic nucleus Present
      Reference