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Details for messenger / hormone: galanin

EndoNet ID: ENH00181

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Synonyms

  • galanin
  • GAL
  • GAL1
  • GALN
  • GLNN

General information

  • Within the central nervous system, high levels of galanin are found in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, basal forebrain, brainstem nuclei, and spinal cord. In the periphery, galanin is found in the gastrointestinal tract, adrenal medulla, dorsal root ganglia, and sympathetic neurons. [1]
  • The widespread distribution of galanin and its receptors in the CNS and PNS have been observed. [2]
  • A highly inducible neuropeptide, showing distinct up-regulation after pathological disturbance within the nervous system. [3]
  • Galanin has important effects on hormone secretion from the hypothalamus and pituitary, and it may also be involved in central biological processes such as pain, memory, and food intake. [4]
  • The level of galanin in human plasma is found to be higher in men than in women. [5]
  • There are heterogeneous forms of immunoreactive galanin in human plasma. [5]
  • It inhibits glucose-induced insulin release, hippocampal acetylcholine release, hippocampal glutamate but not GABA release, and it lowers spinal excitability and firing of locus coeruleus neurons; it stimulates food (fat) intake and growth hormone release upon hypothalamic or i.c.v. injection. [6]

Classification

Hormone function

  • CNS function
    • circadian rhythm / sleep
    • homeostasis
      • cardiovascular control

      Chemical classification

      • hormone
        • genome-encoded
          • peptide neurotransmitters

      Composition

      Galanin message-associated peptide

      Sequence
      PELRPEDDM KPGSFDRSI PENNIMRTI 
      IEFLSFLHL KEAGALDRL LDLPAAASS 
      EDIERS

      Galanin

      Sequence
      PGWTLNSAG YLLGPHAVG NHRSFSDKN 
      GLTS

      Links to other resources

      UniProt P22466
      Ensembl ENST00000265643
      KEGG hsa:51083
      • Anatomical structure: acidophil_mammotroph_cell_of_anterior_pituitary

        • Nonclassical Anterior Pituitary Substances:Peptides [7]
      • Anatomical structure: acidophil_somatotroph_cell_of_anterior_pituitary

      • Anatomical structure: basophil_thyrotroph_cell_of_anterior_pituitary

      • Anatomical structure: arcuate_nucleus_of_hypothalamus

      Targets

      Cellgal3galanin receptor 1galanin receptor 2galanin receptor 3
      adipose tissue Present
      Phenotypes
      • regulation of feeding behavior
      Influences
      • leptin
      adrenal gland Present
      central nerve system element Present
      hippocampus Present
      Present
      ileum Present
      Phenotypes
      • inhibition of circular muscle contraction
      kidney Present
      neuron Present
      Phenotypes
      • neuroregeneration
      • modulation of sensory and behavioral functions
      • neuronal growth
      • neuronal development
      • apoptosis of ganglion cells
      • regulation of exocrine and endocrine secretion
      • pituitary adenoma
      pancreas Present
      paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus Present
      skeleton muscle Present
      small intestine Present
      Phenotypes
      • eating behavior
      • induction of smooth muscle contraction
      Present
      supra-optic nucleus Present
      testis Present
      thyroid gland Present
      Reference