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Details for messenger / hormone: pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide

EndoNet ID: ENH00182

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Synonyms

  • PRP-48
  • pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide
  • PACAP-38
  • PACAP38
  • PACAP 27

General information

  • Alternative splicing in the N-terminal extracellular domain of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) receptor modulates receptor selectivity and relative potencies of PACAP-27 and PACAP-38 in phospholipase C activation. [1]
  • PACAP is a neuroprotective factor. [2]
  • Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide causes calcium influx, intracellular calcium release, and elevation of cAMP in chromaffin cells. [3]
  • Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypetide exists in two amidated forms, PACAP38 and PACAP27, which are expressed in the magnocellular and parvocellular neurons of the paraventricular nucleus and the magnocellular neurons of the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus. [4]
  • PACAP stimulates astroglia to release RANTES and MIP chemokines which protect neurons from HIV infection. [2]
  • PACAP-27 tyrosine phosphorylates mitogen activated protein kinase and increases VEGF mRNAs in human lung cancer cells. [5]

Classification

Hormone function

  • CNS function
    • neurotransmitter
    • homeostasis
      • further hormone secretion

      Chemical classification

      • hormone
        • genome-encoded
          • glucagon family

        Composition

        Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activation polypeptide

        Sequence
        MTMCSGARL ALLVYGIIM HSSVYSSPA 
        AAGLRFPGI RPEEEAYGE DGNPLPDFD 
        GSEPPGAGS PASAPRAAA AWYRPAGRR 
        DVAHGILNE AYRKVLDQL SAGKHLQSL 
        VARGVGGSL GGGAGDDAE PLSKRHSDG 
        IFTDSYSRY RKQMAVKKY LAAVLGKRY 
        KQRVKNKGR RIAYL

        PACAP-related peptide

        Sequence
        DVAHGILNE AYRKVLDQL SAGKHLQSL 
        VARGVGGSL GGGAGDDAE PLS

        PACAP 38

        • PACAP 38 is more potent than PACAP 27 in Phospholipase C activation [1]
        Sequence
        HSDGIFTDS YSRYRKQMA VKKYLAAVL 
        GKRYKQRVK NK

        PACAP 27

        Sequence
        HSDGIFTDS YSRYRKQMA VKKYLAAVL

        Links to other resources

        UniProt P18509
        Ensembl ENST00000450565
        KEGG hsa:116

          Targets

          CellVPAC1VPAC2
          acinar cell of pancreas Present
          Phenotypes
          • positive regulation of secretion
          Present
          Phenotypes
          • positive regulation of secretion
          adrenal cortex Present
          Influences
          • cortisol
          adrenal medulla Present
          Influences
          • ACTH
          • dopamine
          • norepinephrine
          • epinephrine
          Present
          Influences
          • ACTH
          • dopamine
          • norepinephrine
          • epinephrine
          brain Present
          Phenotypes
          • regulation of immune system process
          • regulation of circadian rhythm
          • regulation of exocrine and endocrine secretion
          • sensory perception of pain
          • suppression of inflammation
          cell of adrenal gland zona glomerulosa Present
          Influences
          • aldosterone
          Present
          Influences
          • aldosterone
          chromaffin cell Present
          Phenotypes
          • positive regulation of catecholamine secretion
          Present
          Phenotypes
          • positive regulation of catecholamine secretion
          heart Present
          helper T cell Th1 Present
          Phenotypes
          • cell maturation
          hepatocyte Present
          Phenotypes
          • regulation of cell proliferation
          kidney Present
          Phenotypes
          • positive regulation of vasodilation
          osteoblast Present
          Phenotypes
          • negative regulation of bone resorption
          placenta Present
          Phenotypes
          • regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure
          Reference