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Details for messenger / hormone: IL-1 beta

EndoNet ID: ENH00218

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Synonyms

  • interleukin-1 beta
  • IL-1 beta
  • IL1 beta
  • interleukin 1-beta
  • IL 1 beta
  • interleukin 1 beta
  • IL-1beta
  • IL1beta
  • catabolin

General information

  • Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta)-converting enzyme cleaves the IL-1 beta precursor to mature IL-1 beta, an important mediator of inflammation. [1]
  • IL-1beta causes nuclear export of a specific N-CoR corepressor complex, resulting in derepression of a specific subset of NF-kappaB-regulated genes, exemplified by the tetraspanin KAI1 that regulates membrane receptor function. [2]
  • Interleukin-1-beta is an important pro-inflammatory cytokine and a powerful inhibitor of gastric acid secretion. [3]
  • IL-1beta is an anti-amyloidogenic factor,and that enhancement of its signaling or inhibition of IL-1Ra activity could represent potential therapeutic strategies against Alzheimer's disease. [4]
  • Interleukin-1beta is a potent stimulator of bone resorption, and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of high bone turnover and osteoporosis. [5]
  • Interleukin-1beta-mediated induction of Cox-2 in the CNS contributes to inflammatory pain hypersensitivity. [6]
  • Proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1beta and TNF-alpha, promote cancer cell adhesion and liver metastases by up-regulating the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) on hepatic sinusoidal endothelium (HSE). [7]
  • IL-1 is required for tumor invasiveness and angiogenesis. [8]
  • IL-1beta is abundantly secreted by activated macrophages and blood monocytes. [8]
  • Stimulates the synthesis of positive and inhibits negative acute phase proteins. [9]
  • Interleukin-1beta induces chronic activation and de novo synthesis of neutral ceramidase in renal mesangial cells. [10]
  • Estrogens as well as androgens inhibit the production of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha on monocyte-macrophages. [11]
  • Interleukin-1 increases norepinephrine turnover in the spleen and lung in rats. [12]
  • Interleukin-1beta induces macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta expression in human hepatocytes. [13]

Classification

Hormone function

  • immune response
    • activation

    Chemical classification

    • hormone
      • genome-encoded
        • cytokines
          • IL-1 family

      Composition

      unprocessed precursor

      Sequence
      MAEVPELAS EMMAYYSGN EDDLFFEAD 
      GPKQMKCSF QDLDLCPLD GGIQLRISD 
      HHYSKGFRQ AASVVVAMD KLRKMLVPC 
      PQTFQENDL STFFPFIFE EEPIFFDTW 
      DNEAYVHDA PVRSLNCTL RDSQQKSLV 
      MSGPYELKA LHLQGQDME QQVVFSMSF 
      VQGEESNDK IPVALGLKE KNLYLSCVL 
      KDDKPTLQL ESVDPKNYP KKKMEKRFV 
      FNKIEINNK LEFESAQFP NWYISTSQA 
      ENMPVFLGG TKGGQDITD FTMQFVSS

      Links to other resources

      UniProt P01584
      Ensembl ENST00000263341
      KEGG hsa:3553
      • Anatomical structure: adipose_tissue

        • Several cytokines and related factors are synthesised in adipose tissue, including IL-1β. [14]
      • Anatomical structure: blood

        • IL-1beta is abundantly secreted by activated macrophages and blood monocytes. [8]
      • Anatomical structure: monocyte

        • IL-1β is abundantly secreted by activated macrophages and blood monocytes. [8]
      • Anatomical structure: Kupffer_cell_stellate_cell_of_liver

      • Anatomical structure: hepatocyte

        • Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a proinflammatory cytokine that participates in the activation of the acute-phase plasma protein genes in hepatic cells during infection and injury. [15]

        Influenced by:

        • EGFR isoform a
          in hepatocyte
          • Induced IL-1alpha release from hepatocyte is contingent on both TNF and autocrine TGF-alpha. [16]
        • TNFR1
          in hepatocyte
          • Induced IL-1alpha release from hepatocyte is contingent on both TNF and autocrine TGF-alpha. [16]
        • TNFR2
          in hepatocyte
          • Induced IL-1alpha release from hepatocyte is contingent on both TNF and autocrine TGF-alpha. [16]
      • Anatomical structure: cell_of_endometrium_of_uterus

        Influenced by:

        • leptin receptor
          in cell_of_endometrium_of_uterus
          • Leptin stimulated IL-1 antagonist (IL-1Ra), IL-1beta secretion and expression of IL-1 receptor type I (IL-1R tI) in endometrial epithelial cells and endometrial stromal cells. [17]
      • Anatomical structure: peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)

      • Anatomical structure: osteoblast

      • Anatomical structure: dendritic_cell_in_lymphoid_tissues

      • Anatomical structure: neutrophil_granulocyte

      • Anatomical structure: lung

      • Anatomical structure: macrophage

        • IL-1β is abundantly secreted by activated macrophages and blood monocytes. [8]
        • IL-1β is first synthesized as biologically-inactive precursor (pro-IL-1β) in response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists in macrophages. [18]
        • Pro-IL-1β is then cleaved by caspase- to biologically-active mature IL-1β. [18]

        Influenced by:

        • TLR4
          in macrophage
          • IL-1β is first synthesized as biologically-inactive precursor (pro-IL-1β) in response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists in macrophages. [18]
        • TLR8
          in macrophage
          • IL-1β is first synthesized as biologically-inactive precursor (pro-IL-1β) in response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists in macrophages. [18]
        • TLR9
          in macrophage
          • IL-1β is first synthesized as biologically-inactive precursor (pro-IL-1β) in response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists in macrophages. [18]
        • TLR7
          in macrophage
          • IL-1β is first synthesized as biologically-inactive precursor (pro-IL-1β) in response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists in macrophages. [18]
        • TLR10
          in macrophage
          • IL-1β is first synthesized as biologically-inactive precursor (pro-IL-1β) in response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists in macrophages. [18]
        • TLR6
          in macrophage
          • IL-1β is first synthesized as biologically-inactive precursor (pro-IL-1β) in response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists in macrophages. [18]
        • TLR2
          in macrophage
          • IL-1β is first synthesized as biologically-inactive precursor (pro-IL-1β) in response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists in macrophages. [18]
        • TLR3
          in macrophage
          • IL-1β is first synthesized as biologically-inactive precursor (pro-IL-1β) in response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists in macrophages. [18]
        • TLR5
          in macrophage
          • IL-1β is first synthesized as biologically-inactive precursor (pro-IL-1β) in response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists in macrophages. [18]
        • TLR1
          in macrophage
          • IL-1β is first synthesized as biologically-inactive precursor (pro-IL-1β) in response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists in macrophages. [18]
      • Anatomical structure: continuous_vascular_endothelial_cell_of_blood_vessels_and_lymphatics

        • LPA induces expression of cytokines such as IL-1beta in vascular endothelial cells. [19]

        Influenced by:

        • Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 3
          in continuous_vascular_endothelial_cell_of_blood_vessels_and_lymphatics
      • Anatomical structure: placenta

        • Tissue-extractable IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta immunoreactive proteins were readily detected in fresh placental membranes, but not placental villi. [20]

      Targets

      CellIL-1RIIL-1RII
      bronchial epithelial cell Present
      Influences
      • IL-8
      • lipocalin 2
      cell of endometrium of uterus Present
      Influences
      • LIF
      • interleukin 6
      dendritic cell in lymphoid tissues follicular Present
      epithelial cell Present
      epithelial cell with microvilli Present
      Influences
      • IL-8
      lipocyte of liver Present
      Influences
      • RANTES
      Present
      Influences
      • RANTES
      macrophage Present
      Influences
      • PAF
      monocyte Present
      Influences
      • PAF
      osteoblast Present
      osteoclast Present
      Present
      parathyroid gland Present
      Influences
      • PTH
      pneumocyte type II Present
      Influences
      • lipocalin 2
      • IL-8
      Reference