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Details for messenger / hormone: TNF-beta

EndoNet ID: ENH00248

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Synonyms

  • LT-alpha
  • TNF-beta
  • TNF beta
  • tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 1
  • lymphotoxin alpha
  • lymphotoxin-alpha
  • tumor necrosis factor beta
  • TNFB
  • LTA
  • TNFSF1

General information

  • Stimulate the synthesis of some of the positive, and inhibits negative acute phase proteins. [1]
  • TNF/LTalpha signalling mediates liver regeneration involving both hepatocytes and progenitor cells. [2]
  • LT-alpha is a proinflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in mice. [3]
  • Tumor necrosis factor-beta is associated with thymic apoptosis during acute rejection. [4]
  • Tumour necrosis factors, TNF-alpha and TNF-beta (previously called lymphotoxin), are the products of activated monocytes and lymphocytes. [5]

Classification

Hormone function

  • development and growth
    • growth inhibition

    Chemical classification

    • hormone
      • genome-encoded
        • cytokines

    Composition

    Homotrimer (3 times)

    • Secreted homotrimer and membrane-associated heterotrimer.
    Sequence
    LPGVGLTPS AAQTARQHP KMHLAHSTL 
    KPAAHLIGD PSKQNSLLW RANTDRAFL 
    QDGFSLSNN SLLVPTSGI YFVYSQVVF 
    SGKAYSPKA TSSPLYLAH EVQLFSSQY 
    PFHVPLLSS QKMVYPGLQ EPWLHSMYH 
    GAAFQLTQG DQLSTHTDG IPHLVLSPS 
    TVFFGAFAL

    Links to other resources

    UniProt P01374
    Ensembl ENST00000454783
    KEGG hsa:4049
    • Anatomical structure: lymphocyte

      • Tumour necrosis factors, TNF-alpha and TNF-beta (previously called lymphotoxin), are the products of activated monocytes and lymphocytes. [5]
    • Anatomical structure: T-lymphocyte

    • Anatomical structure: B-lymphocyte

    Targets

    CellLTBRTNFR1
    adipose tissue Present
    Phenotypes
    • negative regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathway
    • regulation of glucose homeostasis
    • hyperinsulinemia
    • insulin resistance
    • negative regulation of gene expression
    • obesity
    Influences
    • leptin
    • insulin
    blood myeloid cell Present
    bone marrow Present
    Phenotypes
    • atherosclerosis
    bronchial epithelial cell Present
    Influences
    • IL-8
    dendritic cell in lymphoid tissues follicular Present
    epithelial cell Present
    epithelial cell with microvilli Present
    Influences
    • eotaxin
    • IL-8
    hepatocyte Present
    Phenotypes
    • antagonizing IL-1alpha/beta ligand activity
    • positive regulation of apoptosis
    • positive regulation of cell proliferation
    Influences
    • TGF-alpha
    • IL-1 alpha
    • IL-1 beta
    • IL-1RA
    Kupffer cell stellate cell of liver Present
    lipocyte of liver Present
    Influences
    • RANTES
    macrophage Present
    Influences
    • PAF
    monocyte Present
    Influences
    • PAF
    neutrophil granulocyte Present
    Influences
    • IL-8
    osteoclast Present
    pneumocyte type II Present
    Influences
    • IL-8
    stromal cell Present
    Phenotypes
    • formation of secondary lymphoid tissue
    stromal fibroblast Present
    Reference