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Details for messenger / hormone: C-C motif chemokine 2

EndoNet ID: ENH00256

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Synonyms

  • MCAF
  • small-inducible cytokine A2
  • MCP-1
  • CCL2
  • small inducible cytokine A2
  • monocyte chemotactic protein 1
  • monocyte chemotactic and activating factor
  • monocyte secretory protein JE
  • HC11
  • SCYA2
  • MCP1
  • monocyte chemoattractant protein 1
  • MCP 1
  • C-C motif chemokine 2

General information

  • Member of the small inducible gene (SIG) family, plays a role in the recruitment of monocytes to sites of injury and infection.
  • Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 is increased in the amniotic fluid of women who deliver preterm in the presence or absence of intra-amniotic infection. [1]
  • MCP-1 (CCL2) protects human neurons and astrocytes from NMDA or HIV-tat-induced apoptosis. [2]
  • The recruitment of monocytes to sites of active angiogenesis is important as these cells migrate through the endothelium and release different growth factors that promote the angiogenic response. Several soluble factors are involved in this process such as the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 that enhances vessel growth by augmentation of monocyte accumulation. [3]
  • MCP-1 stimulates the directional migration of T cells as well as monocytes. [4]
  • Binds to CCR2 and CCR4. [5]
  • Leptin upregulates endothelin 1, VCAM1 and MCP1. [6]
  • MCP-1 and CCR2 interactions are required for IFN-alpha/beta-induced inflammatory responses and antiviral defense in liver. [7]
  • Processing at the N-terminus can regulate receptor and target cell selectivity. Deletion of the N-terminal residue converts it from an activator of basophil to an eosinophil chemoattractant.
  • MCP-1 is induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor-{kappa}B ligand, promotes human osteoclast fusion, and rescues granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor suppression of osteoclast formation. [8]
  • In obesity, MCP-1, a key chemokine in the process of macrophage accumulation, is overexpressed in adipose tissue. [9]
  • MCP-1 plays an important role in atherosclerosis. [10]
  • Insulin inhibits NFkappaB and MCP-1 expression in human aortic endothelial cells. [11]

Classification

Hormone function

  • immune response
    • activation

    Chemical classification

    • hormone
      • genome-encoded
        • cytokines
          • chemokines

    Composition

    Homodimer (2 times)

    Sequence
    QPDAINAPV TCCYNFTNR KISVQRLAS 
    YRRITSSKC PKEAVIFKT IVAKEICAD 
    PKQKWVQDS MDHLDKQTQ TPKT

    mature protein (1 times)

    Sequence
    QPDAINAPV TCCYNFTNR KISVQRLAS 
    YRRITSSKC PKEAVIFKT IVAKEICAD 
    PKQKWVQDS MDHLDKQTQ TPKT

    Links to other resources

    UniProt P13500
    Ensembl ENST00000225831
    KEGG hsa:6347
    • Anatomical structure: pancreatic_islets

      • Human islets release monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), one of the most powerful macrophage chemokines, which may impair the fate of a transplant. [12]
    • Anatomical structure: pancreas

      • Human islets release monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), one of the most powerful macrophage chemokines, which may impair the fate of a transplant. [12]
    • Anatomical structure: ovary

      • CCL2 is expressed in normal human ovarian surface epithelium (HOSE) cells and is silenced in most ovarian cancer cell lines. [13]
    • Anatomical structure: kidney

      • Hypoxia reduces constitutive and TNF-alpha-induced expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in human proximal renal tubular cells. [14]
    • Anatomical structure: adipose_tissue

      • In obesity, MCP-1, a key chemokine in the process of macrophage accumulation, is overexpressed in adipose tissue. [9]
    • Anatomical structure: mast_cell

      • Molecular regulation of interleukin-13 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression in human mast cells by interleukin-1beta. [15]
    • Anatomical structure: osteoblast

      • OSM induces CCL-2 expression in osteoblasts. [16]
    • Anatomical structure: continuous_vascular_endothelial_cell_of_blood_vessels_and_lymphatics

      • Superoxide, H2O2, and iron are required for TNF-alpha-induced MCP-1 gene expression in endothelial cells. [17]
      • LPA induces expression of cytokines such as MCP-1 in vascular endothelial cells. [18]

      Influenced by:

      • Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 3
        in continuous_vascular_endothelial_cell_of_blood_vessels_and_lymphatics
    • Anatomical structure: brain

      • The pro-inflammatory chemokine MCP-1 is both released by and stimulates astrocytes. [19]
    • Anatomical structure: blood

      • CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) is constitutively expressed at high levels in human peripheral blood monocytes, and its expression is further up-modulated during their differentiation into macrophages as well as in the course of HIV infection. [20]
    • Anatomical structure: monocyte

    • Anatomical structure: macrophage

    • Anatomical structure: bronchi

    • Anatomical structure: fat_cell

    • Anatomical structure: lipocyte_of_liver

      • Activin A was also found to stimulate CCL2 expression and to activate ERK, JNK, p38, and their downstream targets. [22]
      • HSCs coordinate the liver wound-healing response through secretion of several cytokines and chemokines, including CCL2 (formerly known as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1). [22]
      • SB203580 and SP600125 dose-dependently inhibited CCL2 secretion and gene expression induced by IL-1 or TNF. [22]

    Targets

    CellCCR-2CCR11CCR4D6
    basophil granulocyte Present
    helper T cell Th1 Present
    lung Present
    lymph node Present
    monocyte Present
    platelet Present
    T-lymphocyte Present
    thymus Present
    Reference