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Details for messenger / hormone: CTGF

EndoNet ID: ENH00576

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Synonyms

  • CCN family member 2
  • insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 8
  • CTGF
  • connective tissue growth factor
  • hypertrophic chondrocyte-specific protein 24
  • CCN2
  • HCS24
  • NOV2
  • MGC102839
  • IGFBP8
  • IGFBP-8
  • insulin-like growth factor- binding protein 8
  • ecogenin

General information

  • CTGF/Hcs24 induces chondrocyte differentiation through a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), and proliferation through a p44/42 MAPK/extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK). [1]
  • 2 isoforms are produced by alternative splicing: a long and a short form. [2]
  • CTGF is up-regulated by Wnt3A and BMP-9 at the early stage of osteogenic differentiation. [3]
  • CTGF/Hcs24 interacts with the cytoskeletal protein actin in chondrocytes. [4]
  • Two immediate early gene-encoded members of the family of the Cyr61/CTGF/Nov proteins referred to as cysteine-rich protein 61 (Cyr61/CCN1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2), are highly expressed in several mechanical stress-related pathologies, which result from either increased externally applied or internally generated forces by the actin cytoskeleton. [5]
  • CTGF stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of cultured osteoblastic cells. [6]
  • CTGF is a 38-kD cysteine-rich mitogen secreted by human vascular endothelial cells. [7]
  • CTGF/Hcs24, a member of the CCN family, is a multifunctional growth factor for fibroblasts, chondrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. [8]
  • CTGF/Hcs24 promotes the adhesion, proliferation, and migration of vascular endothelial cells, as well as induces tube formation by the cells and strong angiogenesis in vivo. [6]
  • CTGF/Hcs24 promotes the proliferation and maturation of growth cartilage cells and articular cartilage cells in culture and hypertrophy of growth cartilage cells in culture. [6]
  • CT domain of CCN2/CTGF directly interacts with fibronectin and enhances cell adhesion of chondrocytes through integrin alpha5beta1. [9]

Classification

Hormone function

  • development and growth
    • growth stimulation

    Chemical classification

    • hormone
      • genome-encoded
        • CCN family

      Composition

      Connective tissue growth factor, long.

      Sequence
      QNCSGPCRC PDEPAPRCP AGVSLVLDG 
      CGCCRVCAK QLGELCTER DPCDPHKGL 
      FCDFGSPAN RKIGVCTAK DGAPCIFGG 
      TVYRSGESF QSSCKYQCT CLDGAVGCM 
      PLCSMDVRL PSPDCPFPR RVKLPGKCC 
      EEWVCDEPK DQTVVGPAL AAYRLEDTF 
      GPDPTMIRA NCLVQTTEW SACSKTCGM 
      GISTRVTND NASCRLEKQ SRLCMVRPC 
      EADLEENIK KGKKCIRTP KISKPIKFE 
      LSGCTSMKT YRAKFCGVC TDGRCCTPH 
      RTTTLPVEF KCPDGEVMK KNMMFIKTC 
      ACHYNCPGD NDIFESLYY RKMYGDMA
      UniProt P29279-1

      Connective tissue growth factor, short.

      Sequence
      QNCSGPCRC PDEPAPRCP AGVSLVLDG 
      CGCCRVCAK QLGELCTER DPCDPHKGL 
      FCDFGSPAN RKIGVCTAK DGAPCIFGG 
      TVYRSGESF QSSCKYQCT CLDGAVGCM 
      PLCSMDVRL PSPDCPFPR RVKLPGKCC 
      EEWVCDEPK DCLVQTTEW SACSKTCGM 
      GISTRVTND NASCRLEKQ SRLCMVRPC 
      EADLEENIK KGKKCIRTP KISKPIKFE 
      LSGCTSMKT YRAKFCGVC TDGRCCTPH 
      RTTTLPVEF KCPDGEVMK KNMMFIKTC 
      ACHYNCPGD NDIFESLYY RKMYGDMA
      UniProt P29279-2

      Links to other resources

      UniProt P29279
      Ensembl ENST00000367976
      KEGG hsa:1490
      • Anatomical structure: lipocyte_of_liver

        • Human and experimental liver fibrosis is associated with CTGF expression through up-regulation of CTGF mRNA by hepatic stellate cells. [10]
        • CTGF is a fibrogenic cytokine stimulated by TGF-beta1 and may mediate some of TGF-beta1's fibrogenic activity. [11]
      • Anatomical structure: aorta

      • Anatomical structure: blood_vessel

      • Anatomical structure: continuous_vascular_endothelial_cell_of_blood_vessels_and_lymphatics

      • Anatomical structure: brain

      • Anatomical structure: cerebellar_cortex

      • Anatomical structure: cell_of_endometrium_of_uterus

      • Anatomical structure: heart

      • Anatomical structure: hippocampus

      • Anatomical structure: mammary_gland

      • Anatomical structure: skin

      • Anatomical structure: fibroblast

      • Anatomical structure: spinal_cord

      • Anatomical structure: uterus

      • Anatomical structure: epithelial_cell

      • Anatomical structure: keratinocyte

      • Anatomical structure: chondrocyte

      • Anatomical structure: prostate

      Targets

      Cellintegrin alpha-V/beta-5integrin alphaV/beta3
      endothelial cell Present
      Phenotypes
      • endothelial cell adhesion
      • positive regulation of endothelial cell migration
      kidney Present
      Reference