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Details for messenger / hormone: PAF

EndoNet ID: ENH00650

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  • PAF
  • platelet-activating factor

General information

  • PGE2 and PAF, and ligation of VnR as well, contribute to amplify viral growth in HIV-1-infected macrophages upon uptake of apoptotic cells. [1]
  • PAF induces activation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 activity and vascular endothelial cell invasion and migration. [2]
  • PAF is a proinflammatory phospholipid mediator involved in the pathogenesis of glomerulonephritis (GN). [3]
  • In plasma, PAF is hydrolyzed and inactivated by PAF-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH), an enzyme associated with lipoproteins, mainly with the low-density lipoprotein. [3]
  • PAF appears to be a physiological mediator of inflammation, which negatively regulates angiogenesis. [4]
  • PAF plays a role in overproduction of lactate during endotoxaemia in NO-deficient rats. [5]
  • PAF mediates lipopolysaccharide induced rise in pulmonary arterial pressure. [6]
  • PAF enhances its own receptor expression. [7]
  • The acetyl group at the sn-2 position of its glycerol backbone is essential for the biological activity of PAF, and its deacetylation induces loss of activity. [8]
  • Endothelial cell PAF synthesis following thrombin stimulation utilizes Ca(2+)-independent phospholipase A(2). [9]
  • PAF is a potent proinflammatory mediator that accumulates in the cornea after injury and induces the expression of genes related to inflammation and wound healing. [10]
  • PAF enhances apoptosis induced by ultraviolet radiation in corneal epithelial cells through cytochrome c-caspase activation. [11]
  • PAF is produced by a variety of cells including basophils, neutrophils, monocytes, mast cells and platelets. [12]
  • Platelet activating factor (PAF) is a potent platelet agonist degraded and inactivated by PAF-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH), which in plasma is associated with lipoproteins. [13]
  • PAF increases lipid accumulation by dysregulating LDL receptor regulation and inducing scavenger receptor expression in human mesangial cells. [7]


Hormone function

  • immune response
    • activation

    Chemical classification

    Links to other resources

    • Anatomical structure: neutrophil_granulocyte

    • Anatomical structure: eosinophil_granulocyte

    • Anatomical structure: basophil_granulocyte

    • Anatomical structure: mesangium

      Influenced by:

      • CD14
        in mesangium
        • Bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) directly stimulate the synthesis of PAF by a CD14-LPS binding protein (LBP) pathway in mesangial cells. [14]
    • Anatomical structure: mast_cell

    • Anatomical structure: macrophage

      Influenced by:

      • TNFR1
        in macrophage
        • TNF induce PAF synthesis by monocyte/macrophages. [14]
      • IL-1RII
        in macrophage
        • IL-1 induce PAF synthesis by monocyte/macrophages. [14]
    • Anatomical structure: monocyte

      Influenced by:

      • CD14
        in monocyte
        • Bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) directly stimulate the synthesis of PAF by a CD14-LPS binding protein (LBP) pathway in monocytes. [14]
      • IL-1RII
        in monocyte
        • IL-1 induce PAF synthesis by monocyte/macrophages. [14]
      • TNFR1
        in monocyte
        • TNF induce PAF synthesis by monocyte/macrophages. [14]
    • Anatomical structure: platelet


    atrium of heart Present
    dendritic cell in lymphoid tissues Present
    epithelial cell Present
    • HB-EGF
    epithelial cell with microvilli Present
    • HB-EGF
    leukocyte Present
    lung Present
    macrophage Present
    monocyte Present
    placenta Present
    platelet Present
    ventricles Present