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Details for messenger / hormone: cholesterol

EndoNet ID: ENH00657

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Synonyms

  • cholesterol
  • cholest-5-en-3beta-ol

General information

  • Cholesterol is one of the most essential membrane components in mammalian cells. [1]
  • MLN64 and MENTHO are two mediators of endosomal cholesterol transport. [2]
  • Cholesterol is useful only when examined together with the high density lipoproteins-cholesterol levels. [3]
  • Cholesterol is the precursor to all steroid hormones.
  • The hepatocyte is the major site for cholesterol synthesis and peripheral uptake, and excess cholesterol is directly secreted into bile or converted into bile salts. [4]
  • The Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome is a defect of cholesterol biosynthesis.
  • There are 3 ways of obtaining adrenal cholesterol for steroidogenesis: (a) lipoprotein-derived uptake, (b) hydrolysis of intracellular cholesterol esters, and (c) de novo synthesis. Of the 3 methods, lipoprotein-derived uptake is the most important, accounting for more than 80% of adrenal cholesterol. [5]
  • ATP binding cassette transporter (ABC) A1 exports cholesterol and phospholipid to lipid-free apolipoproteins, while ATP binding cassette transporter G1 and scavenger receptor BI export cholesterol to phospholipid-containing acceptors. [6]
  • Dynamin is involved in endolysosomal cholesterol delivery to the endoplasmic reticulum. [1]

Classification

Hormone function

  • homeostasis
    • hormone precursor

    Chemical classification

    • hormone
      • not genome-encoded
        • sterol lipids
          • steroids

    Composition

    Links to other resources

    LIPID MAPS LMST01010001
    LipidBank SST9061
    • Anatomical structure: hepatocyte

      Influenced by:

      • LXR-alpha
        in hepatocyte
        • Liver X receptor (LXR) alpha and beta are the nuclear receptors responsible for regulation of cholesterol metabolism. In physiological conditions, high intracellular cholesterol levels cause increased synthesis of oxysterols, which activate LXR, thus triggering a transcriptional response for cholesterol secretion and catabolism. [7]
      • LXR-beta
        in hepatocyte
        • Liver X receptor (LXR) alpha and beta are the nuclear receptors responsible for regulation of cholesterol metabolism. In physiological conditions, high intracellular cholesterol levels cause increased synthesis of oxysterols, which activate LXR, thus triggering a transcriptional response for cholesterol secretion and catabolism. [7]
    • Anatomical structure: mucosa_of_gallbladder

    • Anatomical structure: mucosa_of_small_intestine

    • Anatomical structure: mucosa_of_large_intestine

    • Anatomical structure: macrophage

      Influenced by:

      • ATP-binding cassette sub-family A member 1
        in macrophage
        • It is likely that ABCA1 is the cAMP-inducible apolipoprotein receptor that promotes secretion of lipids from macrophages. [8]
        • There was an investigation whether ABCA1 expression is also responsible for the apoA-I-mediated cholesterol efflux induced by cAMP in macrophages and whether this involves direct binding of apoA-I to plasma membrane ABCA1. [8]

    Targets

    Cell
    No records found.
    Reference